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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: pətḗ(r), genitive pətr-és   'father'

Semantic Field: Father


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: athir n father LRC
Old English: fæder/feder n.masc father LRC
  fæd(e)ra n.masc paternal uncle KEW
Middle English: fader n father W7
  patriarche n patriarch W7
  patricion n patrician W7
  patrimonie n patrimony W7
  patron n patron W7
English: allopatric adj occurring in isolation/different areas AHD/W7
  eupatrid n ancient Athenian hereditary aristocrat AHD/W7
  expatriate vb to banish, drive into exile AHD/W7
  father n sire, man who begot child AHD/W7
  forefather n ancestor AHD/W7
  gaffer n godfather, grandfather, old fellow OED
  godfather n man who sponsors child at baptism W7
  goombah companion, associate, older friend AHD
  grandfather n parent's father; ancestor LRC
  padre n Christian clergyman AHD/W7
  paternal adj re: father AHD/W7
  patri- pfx father AHD
  patriarch n scriptural father of human race/Hebrew people AHD/W7
  patrician n member of noble family (of ancient Rome) AHD/W7
  patrimony n estate inherited from father/other ancestor AHD/W7
  patriot n one who loves his native country AHD/W7
  patroclinous adj re: inherited characteristics closer to father than mother AHD
  patron n one named/chosen/honored as special guardian/protector/supporter AHD/W7
  patronymic adj/n (re:) paternal ancestor's name AHD/W7
  père n father AHD
  perpetrate vb.trans to commit, be guilty of AHD/W7
  sympatric adj occurring in same area AHD/W7
American English: compadre n buddy, companion, close friend/associate AHD
British English: pater n father AHD
Old Frisian: fader/feder/feider n.masc father ASD
Frisian: faer n.masc father ASD
Dutch: vader n.masc father ASD
Old Saxon: fadar/fader n.masc father ASD
  fediro n paternal uncle KSW
Low German: vader n.masc father ASD
Old High German: fatar/fater n.masc father ASD
  fetiro n paternal uncle; male cousin KDW
Middle High German: vater n.masc father ASD
German: Vater n.masc father LRC
  Vetter n.masc male cousin TLL
Old Norse: faðir n.masc father LRC
Icelandic: faðir n.masc father ASD
Danish: fader n.masc father ASD
  fætter n male cousin TLL
Swedish: fader n.masc father ASD
  far n father TLL
Gothic: fadar n.masc father LRC
Latin: pater, patris n.masc father LRC
  paternus adj of a father W7
  patres senators W7
  patria, patriae n.fem fatherland, native country LRC
  patricius adj of patricians W7
  patrimonium n.neut property inherited from father W7
  patrius, patria, patrium adj paternal LRC
  patro, patrare vb to accomplish W7
  patronus n.masc patron, defender W7
  perpetratus vb.ptc perpetrated W7
  perpetro, perpetrare vb to perpetrate W7
  propritim adv as one's own LRC
  proprius, propria, proprium adj proper, own LRC
Late Latin: patriarcha n.masc patriarch W7
  patriota n.masc patriot, countryman W7
Medieval Latin: expatriatus vb.ptc having left one's country W7
  expatriō, expatriāre vb to leave one's country W7
  patronus n.masc patron saint, patron of benefice W7
Portuguese: padre n.masc father, priest W7
  pai n father TLL
Spanish: compadre n.masc friend, compadre AHD
  padre n.masc father TLL
Old French: patriarche n.masc patriarch W7
Middle French: patricien n.masc patrician W7
  patrimonie n.fem patrimony W7
  patriote adj loving one's country W7
  patron n.masc patron saint; one's employer W7
French: père n father TLL
Italian: padre n father TLL
Homeric Greek: πατήρ n.masc father LRC
  πάτρη n home, native land/country LRC
Greek: eupatridēs adj of noble family W7
  πατριά n.fem lineage, fatherland LRC
  patriarchēs n.masc patriarch W7
  patrios adj of one's father W7
  patriōtēs adj patriot, countryman W7
Classical Armenian: hayr n father LRC
Avestan: pitar- n father LRC
Sanskrit: pitár- n father LRC
Tocharian A: pācar n father LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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