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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: preg-   'greedy, covetous; willful, violent'

Semantic Fields: to Desire; to Will, Wish; Rage, Fury


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: Franca prop.n.masc Frank ASD
  Franc-rīce prop.n.neut kingdom of the Franks ASD
  freca n.masc hero, warrior, bold man ASD
  frec(c)/fræc adj bold, avid, greedy, audacious IEW/ASD
  frēcne/frǣcne adj wild, daring, wicked, perilous IEW/ASD
English: France prop.n western European nation LRC
  Franconian prop.n language of the Franks LRC
  Frank prop.n Rhine/Weser immigrant to Gaul/Netherlands W7
  Freca prop.n greedy man in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Dutch: vrec n.masc miser ASD
Old Saxon: frōkan adj wild, bold, impudent ASD
Old High German: Franko prop.n Frank W7
  freh/frë(c)h adj greedy IEW/ASD
Middle High German: vrëch adj bold, greedy, audacious ASD
German: Franke prop.n.masc Frank, Franconian LRC
  Franken prop.n.neut Franconia IEW
  Frankreich prop.n.neut France LRC
  frech adj rash, impertinent ASD
Old Icelandic: frakkr adj brave, plucky, courageous IEW
Icelandic: frekr adj greedy, voracious ASD
Danish: fräk adj bold, greedy, audacious ASD
Swedish: fräck adj bold, greedy, audacious ASD
Gothic: faihu-friks adj greedy, desirous for money ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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