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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: phō̆l-   'to fall'

Semantic Field: to Fall

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: befeallan vb to fall, befall AHD
  feall/fiell n.masc fall, ruin, death RPN/ASD
  feallan, fēol(l), fēollon, feallen vb.str.intrans to fall (down), fail RPN/ASD
  fellan/fyllan vb.wk to fell W7/ASD
  fiellan vb to fell, kill RPN
Middle English: bifallen vb to befall AHD
  blindfelden vb to blindfold, strike blind W7
  blindfellen vb to blindfold W7
  fallen vb to fall W7
  fellen vb to fell W7
English: befall, befell, befallen vb.str to happen (to) AHD
  blindfold vb.trans to cover eyes with bandage AHD/W7
  fall, fell, fallen vb.str.intrans to descend freely from pull of gravity AHD/W7
  fell vb.wk.trans to cut/beat/knock down AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: falla vb to fall ASD
Frisian: fallan vb to fall ASD
Dutch: vallen vb to fall ASD
Old Saxon: fallan vb to fall ASD
Old High German: fallan vb to fall W7
Middle High German: vallen vb to fall ASD
German: fallen vb to fall ASD
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: falla vb to fall (down), be slain; flow LRC
Old Icelandic: fall n fall, ruin, death RPN
  fella vb to fell, kill RPN
Icelandic: falla vb to fall ASD
Danish: falde vb to fall ASD
Swedish: falla vb to fall ASD
Baltic  
Lithuanian: pùlti, púola, púolė vb to attack, assault, fall upon LRC
Armenian  
Armenian: pʰlanim vb to fall in RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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