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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. rēd- : rōd- : rəd-   'to gnaw, scrape, scratch'

Semantic Fields: to Bite; to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ræt n rat W7
Middle English: corroden vb to corrode W7
  rape n rape W7
  rascaile n (one of the) rabble W7
  rasour n razor W7
  rat n rat W7
English: abrade vb to erode, rub/wear away (by friction) AHD/W7
  corrade vb to wear away via abrasion AHD/W7
  corrode vb to eat away slowly as if by gnawing AHD/W7
  erase vb to rub/scrape out (e.g. written letters) AHD/W7
  erode vb to destroy/diminish by degrees AHD/W7
  Morgul-rats orc guards in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  raclette n Swiss dish similar to fondue AHD/CDC
  radula n horny band/ribbon of minute teeth in non-bivalve mollusks AHD/W7
  rape n European herb in mustard family AHD/W7
  rappee n pungent snuff made from rank tobacco leaves AHD/W7
  rascal n mean/dishonest/unprincipled person AHD/W7
  rash n eruption on skin AHD/W7
  rasorial adj habitually scratching ground (in food search) AHD/W7
  raster n screen for photo-engraving AHD/W7
  rat n rodent akin to mouse AHD/W7
  ratine n nubby ply (thick and thin) yarn AHD/W7
  ratteen n coarse woolen fabric AHD/W7
  raze vb to demolish, level to the ground AHD
  razor n keen-edged knife for shaving/cutting hair AHD/W7
  rodent n small gnawing mammal with chisel-shaped incisors AHD/W7
  rostrum n platform for public orators AHD/W7
Old Dutch: ratta n rat ASD
Dutch: rat n rat TLL
Old High German: rāba n rape, turnip W7
  rato n.masc rat ASD
  ratta n.fem rat ASD
German: Raster n.masc raster W7
  Ratte n.fem rat ASD
  Rübe n.fem rape IEW
Icelandic: rotta n.fem rat ASD
Swedish: råtta n rat; mouse TLL
Latin: abrado, abradere vb to scrape off W7
  corrado, corradere vb to scrape together W7
  corrodo, corrodere vb to gnaw to pieces W7
  erado, eradere vb to erase W7
  erasus vb.ptc erased W7
  erodo, erodere vb to eat away W7
  rado, radere vb to scrape, scratch W7
  radula n.fem scraper W7
  rāpum n.neut rape, turnip W7
  raster n.masc rake W7
  rastrum n.neut rake W7
  rasus vb.ptc scratched W7
  rodens, rodentis adj/vb.ptc gnawing W7
  rodo, rodere vb to gnaw W7
  Rostra platform for speakers in Roman Forum W7
  rostrum n.neut beak, prow of ship W7
Vulgar Latin: rasica n.fem rash W7
  rasico, rasicāre vb to scratch W7
Late Latin: rasor n.masc scraper W7
Old French: raseor n.masc razor W7
  raser vb to raze, shave W7
French: rache n.fem scurf W7
  râpe n.fem grater; grape stalk W7
  râpé vb.ptc grated W7
  ratine n.fem type of absorbing fabric W7
  ratiné adj fabric that looks like ratine W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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