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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: reidh-   'to ride, go (in vehicle)'

Semantic Fields: to Ride; to Go


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: rīadaim vb to ride W7
Welsh: gorwydd n horse, steed W7/WE
Old English: ēored/ēorod n.neut cavalry band/troop, lit. horse-ride(rs) ASD
  hron-rād n.fem sea, lit. whale-road LRC
  rād n.fem outfit, harness, implements ASD
  rād n.fem road; raid; ride, journey; (name for) R-rune W7/ASD
  rīdan, rād, ridon, riden vb.str.I to ride LRC
  ridda n.masc rider, horseman ASD
  *riddena-mearc n.fem land of knights, lit. riders' march LRC
Middle English: alredi adv already AHD
  aray n rank, estate, array MEV
  ar(r)ayen/araien/areyen vb to array W7/CDC
  arrayment n raiment W7
  currayen vb to curry W7
  palfrey n palfrey W7
  rayment n raiment W7
  redy adj ready W7
  riden vb to ride W7
  rode n road W7
English: already adv previously, prior to implied/specified time AHD/W7
  array n order, listing, grouping W7
  array vb.trans to marshal, draw up, set/place in order AHD/W7
  curry vb.trans to dress coat with currycomb AHD/W7
  Éored prop.n cavalry unit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  palfrey n saddle horse other than war-horse AHD/W7
  raddle vb.trans to interweave, twist together AHD/W7
  raid n hostile/predatory incursion AHD/W7
  raiment n clothing, garment(s) AHD/W7
  ready adj prepared for some action/experience AHD/W7
  Riddermark prop.n land a.k.a. Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  ride, rode, ridden vb.str to sit/travel on back of animal AHD/W7
  rider n one who rides LRC
  road n place less enclosed than harbor where ships ride at anchor AHD/W7
  Wolf-rider prop.n ally of Saruman in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: rīda vb to ride ASD
Dutch: rijden vb to ride LRC
Old High German: rītan vb to ride W7
German: reiten vb to ride LRC
  Reiter n.masc rider LRC
Runic: *raido n riding; carriage; (name for) R-rune LRC
Old Norse: reið n.fem ride; chariot LRC
  reiði n.masc/neut harness, trappings; tackle, rigging LRC
  ríða vb to ride (over) LRC
Icelandic: reið n.fem raid; ride, journey ASD
  reiða n.fem outfit, implements ASD
  reiði n.masc/neut tackle, harness ASD
  rīða vb to ride, sway, swing ASD
Danish: ride vb to ride LRC
Swedish: rida vb to ride LRC
Gothic: garaiþs adj arrayed, arranged, commanded W7/GED
  raidjan vb.wk to establish, correctly determine GED
Latin: veredus n.masc post-horse W7
Vulgar Latin: arredo, arredare vb to equip W7
  conredo, conredare vb to prepare W7
Late Latin: paraveredus n.masc post-horse for secondary roads W7
Middle Latin: arredare vb.trans to array CDC
Portuguese: arreiar vb.trans to array CDC
Spanish: arrear vb.trans to array CDC
Old French: arayer/areyer/are(i)er vb to array W7/CDC
  arei n rank, estate, array MEV
  correer vb to curry, prepare W7
  palefrei n.masc steed for women W7
Anglo-French: arayer/araier vb.trans to array CDC
Old Occitan: aredar vb.trans to array CDC
Italian: arredare vb.trans to array CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
WE=H. Meurig Evans and W.O. Thomas: Welsh-English, English-Welsh Dictionary (1969)

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