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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: rep-   'to grab, rip out, ravish'

Semantic Fields: to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of; Rape, Violation


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: refsan/ræpsan vb to blame, reprove W7
Middle English: rapt adj rapt W7
  rapyne n rapine W7
  ravin n ravin W7
  ravisshen vb to ravish W7
  surreptitious adj surreptitious W7
English: erepsin n mixture of peptidases AHD/W7
  rapacious adj excessively grasping/covetous AHD/W7
  rapid adj swift, marked by fast rate AHD/W7
  rapine n plunder, pillage AHD/W7
  rapt adj lifted up/carried away AHD/W7
  ravage n act/practice of plundering AHD/W7
  raven vb to devour greedily AHD/W7
  ravin n rapine, rapacity AHD/W7
  ravish vb.trans to seize/take away by violence AHD/W7
  subreption n deliberate misrepresentation AHD/W7
  surreptitious adj clandestine, done/made/acquired by stealth AHD/W7
Old High German: refsan vb to blame, reprove ASD
Latin: eripio, eripere vb to sweep away W7
  rapax, rapācis adj greedy, rapacious W7
  rapidus adj seizing, sweeping, rapid W7
  rapina n.fem a robbing W7
  rapiō, rapere vb to rape, seize, abduct, ravish W7
  raptus vb.ptc taken W7
  subreptio n.fem act of stealing W7
  subreptus vb.ptc stolen W7
  subripio, subripere vb to steal W7
  surrepticius adj surreptitious W7
  surreptus vb.ptc having snatched secretly W7
  surripio, surripere vb to snatch secretly W7
Vulgar Latin: rapire vb to rape, ravish W7
Late Latin: subreptio, subreptionis n.fem act of taking away secretly W7
Old French: ravir vb to ravish ODE
Middle French: ravine n.fem rapine W7
  raviner vb to rush, take by force W7
  raviss- vb.stem to ravish W7
French: ravage n.fem devastation W7
Italian: rapire vb to rape, ravish ODE
Rumanian: rapì vb to rape, ravish ODE


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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