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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. reu-, rēu-, rū̆-   (onomatopoeic: to roar, rout, round, etc.)

Semantic Fields: Sound (n); Various Cries


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: rucht n.masc roar W7/IED
Old English: rēoc adj wild, fierce, savage W7
  rēon vb to mourn, lament W7
  rēotan vb to weep, wail W7
  rūn n.fem rune, writing; secret, mystery W7
  rūnian vb.wk to round W7/ASD
Middle English: riot n riot W7
  rounen vb to round W7
  rowten vb to rout W7
  rumour n rumor W7
  rutte n rut W7
English: raucous adj hoarse, disagreeably harsh/strident AHD/W7
  riot n debauchery, profligate behavior AHD/W7
  rote n surf noise on shore AHD/W7
  round vb.trans to whisper, mutter, mumble, talk low AHD/W7
  rout vb.intrans to bellow, low loudly AHD/W7
  rumor n hearsay, talk/opinion with no discernible source AHD/W7
  rune n letter in ancient Germanic alphabet AHD/W7
  rut n male deer's (annual state of) sexual excitement AHD/W7
Old Dutch: rūnen vb to round ASD
Old Saxon: rūna n rune, counsel, conference ASD
Old Low German: rūnan vb to round, murmur ASD
Old High German: riuzan vb to weep, bewail; make harsh noise ASD
  rūna n rune, whisper, secret discussion ASD
  rūnēn vb to round, murmur, grumble ASD
German: Rune n.fem rune LRC
Old Norse: rauta vb to roar W7
  rūn n rune, secret, mystery LRC
Icelandic: rjōta vb to roar, rattle ASD
  rūn n rune, counsel ASD
Gothic: rūna n.str.fem rune, counsel; secret, mystery LRC
Latin: raucus adj hoarse W7
  rudo, rudere vb to roar, cry out W7
  rugio, rugīre vb to roar W7
  rumor, rumoris n.masc rumor, gossip; murmur, humming noise LRC
Late Latin: rugitus n.masc roar W7
Old French: riot n.masc dispute W7
Middle French: rumour n.fem rumor, gossip; humming noise W7
  rut n.masc roar W7
Greek: ὠρύομαι vb to howl LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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