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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: sak-   'to sacrifice, sanctify, make a treaty'

Semantic Fields: Holy, Sacred; Oath


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: consecraten vb to consecrate W7
  sacerdotal adj sacerdotal W7
  sacred adj sacred W7
  sacren vb to consecrate W7
  sacrifice n sacrifice W7
  saint n saint W7
  secresteyn n sexton W7
  sexteyn n sexton W7
English: consecrate vb.trans to induct into permanent office with religious rite AHD/W7
  corposant n Saint Elmo's fire AHD/W7
  execrate vb.trans to put under curse AHD/W7
  sacerdotal adj priestly, re: priests/priesthood AHD/W7
  sacred adj holy, set apart for service/worship of deity AHD/W7
  sacrifice n offering to deity W7
  sacrifice vb to immolate, offer to deity W7
  sacristan n sexton, one in charge of sacristy AHD
  sacristy n vestry, room in church housing sacred vessels/vestments AHD
  sacrosanct adj sacred, inviolable AHD/W7
  saint n one officially recognized as holy/preeminent AHD/W7
  sanctum n sacred place AHD/W7
  sexton n church officer/employee who cares for property AHD/W7
Latin: consecratus vb.ptc consecrated, dedicated W7
  consecro, consecrare vb to consecrate, dedicate W7
  exsecratus vb.ptc imprecated W7
  exsecror, exsecrāri vb.dep to imprecate W7
  sacer adj sacred W7
  sacerdos, sacerdotis n.masc priest W7
  sacerdotalis adj re: priest/priesthood W7
  sacio, sacire vb to make sacred W7
  sacro, sacrare vb to consecrate W7
  sacrosanctus adj sacrosanct W7
  sanciō, sancīre, sānxī, sānctum vb to enact, make sacred LRC
  sanctus, sancta, sanctum adj sacred LRC
Late Latin: sanctus, sancta, sanctum adj re: saint LRC
Medieval Latin: sacristanus n.masc sacristan W7
Portuguese: corpo-santo n.masc holy body W7
Old French: sacrer vb to make sacred W7
  sacrifice n sacrifice W7
Middle French: sacerdotal adj re: priest/priesthood W7
  saint adj sacred W7
  secrestain n.masc sacristan W7
Hittite: sāklāis n rite W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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