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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. sal-   'sal, salt; brackish water'

Semantic Fields: Salt; Water

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: salann n salt LRC
English  
Old English: sealt n.neut salt ASD
  sealt-ȳð n.str.fem lit. salt-wave LRC
Middle English: cylte n silt W7
  salade n salad W7
  salarie n salary W7
  saline adj saline W7
  salt n salt W7
  sauce n sauce W7
  sausige n sausage W7
  sousen vb to souse W7
English: coleslaw n salad of raw cabbage W7
  hal(o)- pfx salt AHD
  sal n salt AHD
  salad n raw vegetables served with dressing AHD/W7
  salami n highly seasoned pork/beef sausage AHD/W7
  salary n stipend, fixed compensation paid for services AHD/W7
  sali- pfx salt AHD
  saline adj containing/consisting of salt AHD/W7
  salsa n spicy condiment sauce AHD
  salt adj salty, saline, re: salt AHD/W7
  salt n sodium chloride (used to season/preserve food) AHD/W7
  saltcellar n small dish for holding/dispensing salt AHD
  sauce n relish/condiment for food AHD/W7
  sausage n highly seasoned minced meat stuffed in intestinal casings AHD/W7
  silt n loose sedimentary material with tiny rock particles AHD/W7
  slaw n coleslaw W7
  souse vb to pickle AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: salt n salt ASD
Dutch: koolsla n coleslaw, lit. cabbage salad W7
  sla n slaw, salad, lettuce W7/TLL
Old Saxon: salt n salt ASD
Old Low German: salt n salt ASD
Old High German: salz n salt W7
  sulza n brine W7
  sulza n salt marsh W7
German: Kopfsalat n lettuce, lit. head-salad TLL
  Salz n.neut salt LRC
  Sole n.fem brine LRC
  Sulze/Sülze n.fem brine, aspic LRC
N-Germanic  
Icelandic: salt n salt ASD
Danish: salat n salad, lettuce TLL
  sylt n salt marsh W7
Swedish: sallad n salad, lettuce TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: salt n salt LRC
Crimean Gothic: salt n salt CGo
Italic  
Latin: sāl, salis n.masc sal, brine, sea(water) W7
  salarium n.neut salary, salt money, pension W7
  salarius adj re: salt W7
  salinus adj re: salt W7
  sallo, sallere vb to salt W7
  salsus adj salted W7
Late Latin: salsicia n.fem sausage W7
Portuguese: sal n salt TLL
Spanish: sal n salt TLL
Old North French: saussiche n.fem sausage W7
Middle French: salade n.fem salad W7
  sauce n.fem sauce, gravy W7
French: sel n salt TLL
Old Provençal: sal n.masc salt W7
  salada n.fem salad W7
  salar vb to salt W7
Italian: salame n.masc salami W7
  salami n.masc salami W7
  salare vb to salt W7
  sale n.masc salt W7
Baltic  
Latvian: sāls n salt LRC
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: solь n.fem salt LRC
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: ʽάλς n.masc salt LRC
Armenian  
Classical Armenian:  n salt LRC
Indic  
Sanskrit: sal-ilá n sea LRC
Tocharian  
Tocharian A: sāle n salt LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pfx=prefix
str=strong (inflection)
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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