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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: sā́u̯el-, sāu̯ol-, suu̯él-, su̯el-, sūl-   'Sol, sun'

Semantic Field: Sun

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: sigel/sægl/segl n.neut Sol; (name for) S-rune ASD
  sunna n.masc sun ASD
  sunne n.fem sun ASD
  sūð adj/adv south; southerly LRC
  sūðan adv from the south ASD
  sūðerne adj southern W7
  sūðe-weard adj southward LRC
  Sūð-Seaxan/Sūð-Seaxe prop.n.masc.pl Sussex, lit. South Saxons ASD
  sūð-stæð n.neut south shore LRC
Middle English: Sol prop.n Sol W7
  sol n sol W7
  solar adj solar W7
  south adj/adv south W7
  southern adj southern W7
  southren adj southern W7
  sunne n sun W7
  turnesole n turnsole W7
English: anthelion n bright white spot on parhelic circle opposite sun AHD/W7
  aphelion n point in comet/planet orbit most distant from sun AHD/W7
  girasol n Jerusalem artichoke AHD/W7
  heliacal adj re: sun AHD/W7
  helio- pfx sun AHD
  heliocentric adj lit. sun-centered LRC
  Helios prop.n sun god (Greek mythology) W7
  helium n light colorless inert gas AHD/W7
  insolate vb to expose to sun's rays AHD/W7
  isohel n map/chart line depicting places with equal sunshine duration AHD/W7
  parasol n lightweight umbrella used as sunshade AHD/W7
  parhelion n bright colored spot on parhelic circle AHD/W7
  perihelion n orbital point nearest sun's center AHD
  Sol prop.n the Sun AHD/W7
  sol n monetary unit AHD/W7
  solanaceous adj re: nightshade plant family AHD
  solanine n bitter poisonous crystalline alkaloid AHD/W7
  solar adj re: sun AHD/W7
  solarium n apartment exposed to sun AHD/W7
  south adv/adj southward; re: the south AHD/W7
  south n direction to right when facing east W7
  southern adj re: region conventionally designated South AHD/W7
  Southfarthing prop.n Shire quadrant in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Southlinch prop.n Bree pipe-weed in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  southward adv to/toward the south  
  sun n luminous celestial body AHD/W7
  sundew n drosera: insectivorous plant AHD
  Sunlending prop.n a.k.a. Gondor in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  turnsole n plant whose stems/flowers turn with sun AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: suthern adj southern ASD
Dutch: zon n sun TLL
  zuiden n south TLL
Old Saxon: sunna n.fem sun ASD
  sunno n.masc sun ASD
Old Low German: sunna n.fem sun ASD
Old High German: sundan adv from the south ASD
  sundrōni/sundirin adj southern W7/ASD
  sunna n.fem sun ASD
  sunno n.masc sun ASD
German: Sonne n.fem sun LRC
  Süden n.masc south LRC
  südlich adj southern LRC
N-Germanic  
Runic: *sowilo n Sol; (name for) S-rune LRC
Old Norse: sól n.fem Sol LRC
  suðr adv southwards LRC
Icelandic: sól n.fem Sol ASD
  suðrænn adj southern ASD
  sunna n.fem sun ASD
  sunnan adv from the south ASD
Danish: sol n sun TLL
  syd n south TLL
Swedish: sol n sun TLL
  söder n south TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: sauil n.neut Sol ASD
  sunna n.masc sun ASD
  sunnō n.wk.fem/neut sun LRC
Crimean Gothic: sune n sun CGo
Italic  
Latin: insolatus vb.ptc insolated W7
  insolo, insolare vb to insolate W7
  sōl, sōlis n.masc the sun LRC
  solanum n.neut nightshade W7
  solaris adj re: sun W7
  solarium n.neut sundial, terrace W7
Late Latin: heliacus adj re: sun W7
Medieval Latin: sole n.masc sun W7
New Latin: aphelion n.neut aphelion W7
  helium n.neut helium W7
Spanish: sol n.masc sun W7
American Spanish: sol n.masc sun; monetary unit W7
Middle French: sol n coin: 12 deniers W7
  tournesol n.masc sunflower W7
French: parasol n.masc parasol W7
Old Italian: parare vb to shield W7
  parasole n.masc parasol W7
  sole n.masc sun W7
  tornasole n.masc sunflower, heliotrope W7
Italian: girare vb to turn W7
  girasole n.fem sunflower W7
  sòle n.masc sun W7
Baltic  
Latvian: saule n.fem sun, sunlight, sunshine LRC
Hellenic  
Greek: anthēlios adj opposite the sun W7
  ʼΗέλιος n.masc Helios LRC
  hēliakos adj round object W7
  ʽη̃λιος n.masc sun LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pfx=prefix
pl=plural (number)
prop=proper
ptc=participle
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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