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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: se-   'self, one's own'

Semantic Field: to Own, Possess


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gelīc adj like W7
  god-sibb n.masc sponsor W7
  se(o)lf/silf/sylf pron.refl self, same ASD
  sibb adj/n related; kinship, kinsman W7
  swā adv so, thus LRC
  swān n swain: boy, herdsman W7
  swilc adj/pron such LRC
  swilce adv thus, likewise, such (manner) LRC
Middle English: bootswein n boatswain W7
  consuetude n consuetude W7
  custume n customer W7
  desolat adj desolate W7
  ethik n ethic W7
  ethnic adj ethnic W7
  gossib n gossip W7
  mansuetude n mansuetude W7
  mastif n mastiff W7
  sib adj/n sib W7
  so adv so W7
  sobre adj sober W7
  solain adj sullen, solitary, W7
  sole adj sole W7
  solitary adj solitary W7
  solitude n solitude W7
  such adj such W7
  swein n swain: boy, servant W7
English: boatswain n petty officer on ship AHD/W7
  cacoethes n mania, insatiable desire AHD/W7
  consuetude n custom, social usage AHD/W7
  custom n common usage/practice AHD/W7
  desolate adj deserted, devoid of visitors/inhabitants AHD/W7
  desuetude n disuse, discontinuance from use/exercise AHD/W7
  ethic n discipline re: what is good vs. bad AHD/W7
  ethnic adj heathen, neither Christian nor Jewish AHD/W7
  ethno- pfx race, people, cultural group AHD/W7
  ethos n distinguishing tone/character/guiding beliefs AHD/W7
  gossip n godparent AHD/W7
  hetaera n highly cultivated Greek courtesan AHD/W7
  idio- pfx distinct, personal, separate, one's own AHD/W7
  idiom n dialect, language peculiar to class/people/district/community AHD/W7
  idiopathic adj peculiar to individual W7
  idiopathy n idiopathic disease/anomaly AHD/W7
  idiot n person afflicted with idiocy AHD/W7
  khedive n Turkish viceroy in Egypt AHD
  Khotanese prop.n ancient language of Xinjiang AHD
  mansuetude n tameness, meekness, gentleness AHD/W7
  mastiff n (very large type of) dog AHD/W7
  nisi adj taking effect at specified time unless voided/modified AHD/W7
  quasi adv seemingly, in some sense/degree AHD/W7
  seduce vb to persuade to disobey AHD/W7
  seduction n seducing to wrong AHD/W7
  self pron.inten/refl person, individual AHD/W7
  sib adj akin, related by blood AHD/W7
  sic adv intentionally so written AHD/W7
  so adv in way/manner suggested/indicated AHD/W7
  sober adj abstemious, sparing in use of food/drink AHD/W7
  sodality n brotherhood, community AHD/W7
  sole adj only, solitary AHD/W7
  solipsism n theory holding that only self exists AHD/W7
  solitary adj being/living/going alone/without companions AHD/W7
  solitude n seclusion, being alone/remote from society AHD/W7
  solo n musical composition for single voice/instrument AHD/W7
  such adj/pron (re:) kind/character suggested/indicated AHD/W7
  suicide n act/instance of killing oneself AHD/W7
  sullen adj gloomily/resentfully silent/repressed AHD/W7
  swain n peasant, rustic AHD/W7
  swami n Hindu ascetic/religious teacher AHD/W7
Old Frisian:  adv so, as, thus ASD
  self pron self, very own ASD
  se-līk pron such ASD
  selk pron such ASD
  suck pron such ASD
  sulch pron such ASD
  sulk pron such ASD
Dutch: als conj when TLL
  zijn his, its TLL
  zoo conj as TLL
  zoodat conj so that TLL
Old Saxon: self pron self, very own ASD
   adv so, as, thus ASD
  su-līk pron such ASD
Old High German: selb/selp pron.inten self W7/ASD
  sīn pron.poss his W7
  sippa n kinship, family W7
   adv so W7
  solh pron such ASD
  so-līh pron such ASD
  su-līh adj/pron such W7/ASD
German: als conj than, when TLL
  sein pron.poss his LRC
  selber pron.inten self LRC
  Sippe n.fem kinship, family LRC
  so adv so LRC
Old Norse: sik pron.refl him-/her-/it-self; them-selves LRC
  sjálfr adj self; him-/her-/it-self; themselves LRC
  slíkr adj such LRC
  svá adv so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if LRC
  sveinn n boy, servant W7
Icelandic: sjálfr pron self, very own ASD
  slíkr pron such ASD
  svá/svó adv so, as, thus ASD
Danish: saa adv so, as, thus ASD
Swedish:  adv so, as, thus ASD
Gothic: *seins poss.adj one's own LRC
  silba pron.refl self LRC
  swa adv so, as, thus LRC
  swa-leiks adj/pron such ASD
  swaswē conj as, just as; so as; so as to, so that LRC
  swē conj like, as, just as; so that; about LRC
Latin: consuesco, consuescere vb to accustom W7
  consuetudo n.fem custom, mores W7
  consuetus vb.ptc used to W7
  desolatus vb.ptc abandoned W7
  desolo, desolāre vb to abandon W7
  desuesco, desuescere vb to become unaccustomed W7
  desuetudo n.fem obsoleteness W7
  desuetus vb.ptc obsolete W7
  idiota n.masc ignorant person W7
  ipse, ipsa, ipsum pron himself, herself, itself W7
  mansuesco, mansuescere vb to tame W7
  mansuetudo n.fem mansuetude W7
  mansuetus adj tame, mild W7
  nisi conj unless, if not W7
  quasi adv almost W7
  se- pfx apart W7
  se pron.acc/abl oneself W7
  sed conj but W7
   conj if LRC
  sīc adv so, thus LRC
  sobrius adj sober W7
  sodalis n.masc comrade W7
  sodalitas, sodalitatis n.fem comradeship, club W7
  solea n.fem sandal; flatfish W7
  sōleō, solēre, solitum vb to be accustomed LRC
  solitarius adj alone, solitary W7
  solitas n.fem aloneness W7
  sōlitūdō, sōlitūdinis n.fem solitude W7
  solitus, solita, solitum adj usual, accustomed LRC
  solus, sola, solum adj alone LRC
  suesco, suescere vb to accustom, become accustomed W7
  sui pron.refl.gen of oneself W7
  suus, sua, suum pron/adj.poss one's own LRC
Vulgar Latin: mansuetinus adj tame W7
Late Latin: ethnicus adj ethnic W7
  idioma n.neut individual peculiarity of language W7
New Latin: ethos n.masc habits of living W7
Portuguese: se conj if, whether TLL
Spanish: si conj if, whether TLL
  sino conj but TLL
Old French: custume n.fem custom W7
  se pron.refl oneself W7
Middle French: ethique n.fem ethic W7
  idiome n.masc idiom, language W7
  mastin n.masc mastiff W7
  sobre adj sober, simple W7
  solain adj sullen W7
  sole n.fem flatfish W7
  solitude n.fem solitude, loneliness W7
French: désuétude n.fem obsoleteness W7
  ethno- pfx ethno- W7
  si conj if, whether TLL
Italian: così conj as TLL
  se conj if, whether TLL
  solo adj alone, single W7
Lithuanian: savę̃s pron.refl oneself, itself LRC
Latvian: sava pron his, one's LRC
  savs pron his LRC
Old Church Slavonic: svoi, svoe, svoja adj own, one's own LRC
  sebe pron.refl self LRC
Homeric Greek: ἑται̃ρος n.masc comrade, companion LRC
  ʽέταρος n.masc comrade, companion LRC
Greek: ethnikos adj ethnic, gentile, national W7
  ethnos n.neut tribe, nation W7
  ʽέκαστος adj/pron.indef each, every LRC
  ἐός adj his, her LRC
  hetaira n.fem female companion, prostitute W7
  hetairos n.masc companion W7
  ēthikē n.fem ethic W7
  ēthikos adj ethical, re: character W7
  ʼη̃θος n.neut ethos, custom LRC
  ἰδίᾳ adv privately LRC
  ἰδίαν adv alone LRC
  idiopatheia adj idiopathy, particular affection W7
  ʼίδιος adj own, private, particular LRC
  idiousthai vb to appropriate W7
  idiōma n.neut idiom W7
  idiōtēs n.masc idiot, layman, ignorant person W7
  kakoēthēs adj malignant W7
  ʽόταν conj when, every time LRC
  ʽότε conj when LRC
  ʽότι conj that, because LRC
  ʽότος pron someone LRC
  σφει̃ς pron.refl they LRC
  σφέτερος adj own LRC
  σφωε pron those two LRC
  hōs adv so, thus W7
  ʽώστε adv/conj like, so that LRC
Classical Armenian: inkʿnin pron.emph he himself, he personally, the very one LRC
  iwr pron.refl himself, herself, itself LRC
Sanskrit: sva adj one's own, one's self W7
  svāmin n lord, owner W7
Hindi: svāmī n swami W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
abl=ablative (case)
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
poss=possessive (case)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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