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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. sek-   'to see, notice; show, say, speak'

Semantic Fields: to See; to Show; to Say; to Speak, Talk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gesēon, geseah, gesǣgon, gesegen vb.str.V to see, observe LRC
  gesiht/gesi(e)hþ/gesyhþ n.fem sight, vision, power of seeing W7/ASD
  saga/sagu n.masc/fem saw/saga, speech ASD
  secg(e)an, sægde, sægd vb.wk.III to say, tell (a tale), recite (a poem) ASD
  secgg(e)an/sæcgan vb.wk.III to say, tell (a tale), recite (a poem) ASD
  sēon, seah, sǣgon, segen vb.str.V to see, look LRC
Middle English: gainsayen vb to gainsay W7
  sawe n saw W7
  sayen vb to say W7
  scald n scold W7
  scold n scold W7
  seen vb to see W7
  sight n sight W7
English: gainsay, gainsaid vb.wk.trans to deny, dispute AHD/W7
  saga n tale, story, narrative AHD
  saw n maxim, saying, proverb AHD/W7
  say, said vb.wk to state, express in words AHD/W7
  scold n one addicted to ribald abusive speech AHD/W7
  see, saw, seen vb.str to perceive by eye/sight AHD/W7
  sight n spectacle, something seen AHD/W7
  sight vb.trans to get/catch view of W7
  skald n bard, ancient Scandinavian poet/historiographer AHD/W7
Old Frisian: sega/sedsa vb to say, tell ASD
  sia vb to see ASD
Dutch: zeggen vb to say, tell LRC
  zien vb to see LRC
Old Saxon: seggian vb to say, tell ASD
  sehan vb to see ASD
Old High German: gisiht n sight W7
  saga/sega n.fem saw/saga, speech ASD
  sagēn vb to say, tell W7
  sehan vb to see W7
German: Gesicht n.neut sight; face, visage LRC
  Sage n.fem saga, history LRC
  sagen vb to say LRC
  sehen vb to see LRC
Old Norse: saga n.fem saw/saga, history LRC
  segja, sagða vb to say, speak; tell, relate LRC
  sjá vb to see, perceive; look, find; understand LRC
  skāld n skald W7
Icelandic: saga n saga ASD
  seg(g)ja vb to say, tell ASD
  sjá vb to see ASD
  skālda vb to make scurrilous verse W7
  sög n.fem saw ASD
Danish: se vb to see LRC
  sige vb to say, tell LRC
  sigte vb to sight LRC
Swedish: se vb to see LRC
  sikta vb to sight LRC
  säga vb to say, tell LRC
Gothic: saíƕan vb.str.V to see LRC
Latin: inquam vb.defc to say LRC
Greek: ennepein vb to speak, tell W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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