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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. sem-   'one, some, together'

Semantic Fields: One; to Join, Unite


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: -som enc that one RPN
Old English: same adv also, similarly RPN
  sim(b)el/symbel adj/adv continual, perpetual; ever, always ASD
  simle adv ever, always LRC
  -sum sfx -some W7
  sum indef.adj/pron some LRC
Middle English: acolite n acolyte W7
  alsaume adv all together MEV
  as(s)emblen/as(s)emlen vb to assemble W7/CDC
  assembly n assembly, joining of battle MEV
  assimilaten vb to assimilate AHD
  bisemen vb to beseem AHD
  omelie n homily W7
  resemblen vb to resemble W7
  sam(e)/samen/somyn adv together MEV
  same adj same W7
  semely adj seemly W7
  semen vb to seem W7
  simple adj simple W7
  simplicite n simplicity W7
  single adj single W7
  -som sfx -some W7
  som indef.adj/pron some W7
  syn- pfx syn- W7
English: acolyte n minister's assistant in liturgical service AHD/W7
  anacoluthon n syntactic incoherence/inconsistency within sentence AHD/W7
  anomalous adj abnormal, deviating from general rule/method/analogy AHD/W7
  assemble vb to convoke, collect in/as one place/group AHD/W7
  assembly n set of persons gathered for purpose W7
  assimilate vb to take in as nourishment, absorb into system AHD/W7
  beseem vb to befit, be fitting/becoming/suitable W7
  ensemble n group constituting a whole/producing single effect AHD/W7
  haploid adj having half the number of chromosomes characteristic of somatic cells AHD/W7
  hendecasyllabic adj re: (verses of) 11 syllables AHD/W7
  heter(o)- pfx other, different AHD
  heterodox adj contrary to/different from acknowledged standard AHD/W7
  heteroecious adj passing different life-cycle stages on alternate/unrelated hosts AHD/W7
  heterogeneous adj mixed, consisting of dissimilar parts AHD/W7
  heteronym n two/more words with same spelling but different meanings/pronunciations AHD
  heteronymous adj re: heteronym AHD
  homeo- pfx like, similar AHD
  homily n religious discourse before congregation AHD/W7
  hom(o)- pfx same, like AHD
  homolographic adj preserving mutual relations of parts AHD/W7
  homosexual adj/n (re:) individual attracted to same sex TLL
  hyphen n punctuation mark (-) AHD/W7
  resemble vb.trans to be like/similar to AHD/W7
  sambal n spicy condiment of Malaysia/Indonesia AHD
  same adj resembling in all relevant respects AHD/W7
  samhita n collection of sacred/devotional Sanskrit hymns AHD
  samizdat n secret publication/distribution of Soviet-banned literature AHD
  Samkhya/Sankhya prop.n orthodox Hindu philosophy, lit. based on calculation LRC
  samsara n eternal cycle: birth, misery, death AHD/W7
  seem vb.intrans to appear, give impression of being AHD/W7
  seemly adj handsome, good-looking AHD/W7
  semplice adj simple, unaffected AHD/W7
  sempre adv always AHD/W7
  Simbelmynë prop.n a.k.a. Evermind in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  similar adj marked by resemblance/correspondence AHD/W7
  simple adj innocent, free from guile AHD/W7
  simplex adj single, simple AHD/W7
  simplicity n state of being simple/uncompounded AHD/W7
  simultaneous adj coincident, existing/occurring at same time AHD/W7
  single adj solitary, singular; unmarried AHD/W7
  -some adj.sfx characterized by (specified) thing/state/action/quality AHD/W7
  some indef.adj/pron re: one unknown/undetermined/unspecified unit/thing AHD/W7
  soviet n elected governmental council in Communist country AHD/W7
  sym-/syn- pfx (along/together) with AHD/W7
  synalepha n blending of successive vowels into one syllable AHD
  syngeneic adj genetically identical, closely related, immunologically compatible AHD
  synonymous adj having same/similar meaning AHD
  synost(e)osis n union via bone, fusion of normally separate bones CDC/AHD
Old Frisian: sum pron.indef some ASD
Old Saxon: sum pron.indef some ASD
Old High German: -sam sfx -some W7
  sama adj same W7
  samo adj same RPN
  sum adj/pron.indef some W7/ASD
Old Norse: sama vb to beseem LRC
  saman adv together LRC
  samr adj same LRC
  samr adj same W7
  soemiligr adj seemly, becoming W7
  soemr adj seemly, becoming W7
  sóma, sómad vb to beseem, become LRC
  sumr adj some LRC
Icelandic: sumr pron.indef some ASD
Danish: som conj as TLL
Swedish: som conj as TLL
Gothic: sama adj same LRC
  sinteins adj daily LRC
  sums pron.indef some, one LRC
Latin: adsimilare/assimilare vb to feign, imitate, simulate CDC
  assimilare vb to assemble, bring together CDC
  assimulo, assimulare vb to feign, make similar W7
  hendecasyllabus n.masc line of eleven syllables W7
  insimul adv at same time W7
  semper adv ever, always W7
  sim- pfx one W7
  similis adj like, similar RPN
  similo, similare vb to copy W7
  simplex, simplicis adj single, simple, unmixed W7
  simplicitas, simplicitatis n.fem simplicity W7
  simplus adj plain, single W7
  simul adv together, at same time LRC
  simulis adj like W7
  simulo, simulare vb to feign, copy, represent W7
  singulus adj only one W7
  syn- pfx syn- W7
Vulgar Latin: assimulo, assimulāre vb to compare, imitate W7
Late Latin: anacoluthon adj inconsistent in logic W7
  anomalus adj anomalous AHD
  homilia n.fem discourse, homily W7
Middle Latin: assimulare vb to assemble, bring together CDC
Medieval Latin: acoluthus adj that follows W7
  acolytus n acolyte AHD
  assimilatus vb.ptc assimilated W7
  assimilo, assimilare vb to assimilate W7
  simultaneus adj simultaneous, at same time W7
Old Spanish: asemblar vb to assemble CDC
Old French: acolite n.masc follower W7
  assemblee n assembly, joining of battle MEV
  as(s)embler/assambler vb to gather, assemble W7/CDC
  resembler vb to resemble W7
  sembler vb to seem, be like W7
  simple adj plain, artless, uncomplicated W7
  syn- pfx syn- W7
Middle French: omelie n.fem discourse, homily W7
  resembler vb to resemble W7
  simplicité n.fem simplicity W7
French: ensemble adv together W7
  similaire adj similar W7
Old Occitan: assemblar/asemlar vb to assemble CDC
Italian: assemblare/assembrare vb to assemble CDC
  semplice adj simple, unmixed W7/CID
  sempre adv always, ever W7/CID
Lithuanian:  prep with LRC
Old Church Slavonic: samъ adj same RPN
  samъ pron self, oneself LRC
   prep with LRC
  sъvęzati, sъvęzajǫ, sъvęzaješi vb to tie, bind LRC
Russian: so prep with W7
Albanian: gjith adj all, whole, entire IEW
  gjithmonë adv always LRC
Greek: akolouthos adj following W7
  ʽάμα adv at the same time LRC
  hama adv together W7
  hamē adv somehow W7
  anakolouthon adj inconsistency in logic W7
  anakolouthos adj inconsistent in logic W7
  anōmalos adj uneven W7
  haploeidēs adj single W7
  haploos adj single W7
  ἀφομοιο̑ω vb to make like LRC
  εʽι̃ς nbr/adj one LRC
  heis nbr one W7
  hen nbr.neut one W7
  hendeka nbr eleven W7
  keleuthos n.fem path W7
  homalos adj even W7
  homilein vb to consort with, address W7
  ὁμιλέω vb to consort with, busy oneself with LRC
  ὁμιλία n.fem being together LRC
  homilia n.fem conversation, discourse, reunion W7
  homilos n.masc crowd, assembly W7
  ʽόμοιος adj like, similar LRC
  ὁμοίως adv similarly LRC
  ὁμός adj same RPN
  homos adj same W7
  ὁμου̃ adv together LRC
  οὐδαμου̃ adv nowhere LRC
  οὐδαμω̃ς adv by no means LRC
  σύν prep with LRC
  syn prep (together) with W7
  hyphen adv in a whole W7
Late Greek: anakolouthon adj inconsistency in logic W7
  homilia n.fem homily W7
Medieval Greek: akolouthos adj that follows W7
Classical Armenian: amenayn adj all, every LRC
  amenayn n everyone LRC
  hez adj meek LRC
  mi adj one LRC
Old Persian: hama- adj same, equal RPN
Avestan: hāma- adj like RPN
Sanskrit: saṁsāra n lit. flowing/passing through W7
  samá-ḥ adj same, equal RPN
  sám adv together LRC
  sāṁkhya n Samkhya: salvation by knowing matter vs. soul distinction W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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