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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ser-   'to flow, stream'

Semantic Fields: to Flow; Brook, Stream, River


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English: samsara n eternal cycle: birth, misery, death AHD/W7
  serac n pinnacle, sharp ridge/block of ice among glacier crevasses AHD/W7
  serum n watery portion of animal fluid AHD/W7
Latin: serum n.neut whey W7
Medieval Latin: seracium n.neut whey W7
French: sérac n.masc type of white cheese W7
Homeric Greek: αἱρέω vb to grasp, seize, capture LRC
  ἀφ-αιρέω vb to take away LRC
  καθ-αιρέω vb to destroy, overcome, take down LRC
  ὁρμή n rush, onset, attack RPN
Greek: ἀπ-αιρέω vb to take off LRC
  ʼόρος n.neut mountain LRC
  προ-αίρεσις n.fem choice LRC
  προ-αιρέω vb to choose LRC
Sanskrit: saṁsāra n samsara, lit. flowing/passing through W7
  sárati/sasarti vb to run, flow, move RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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