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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)kāi-   'bright, shining'

Semantic Field: Bright


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hād/hǣd n rank, status GED
  -hād sfx -hood GED
  hādor/hǣdor adj brisk GED
Middle English: celen vb to ceil W9
  celing n ceiling W9
  -hed/-hod n.sfx -hood W7
  maidenhed n maidenhead W7
English: ceil vb to furnish with lining W9
  ceiling n overhead inside room lining W9
  cheetah n swift spotted long-legged African cat AHD/W7
  chint, chints n printed calico from India AHD/W7
  chintz n printed calico from India AHD/W7
  -hood n.sfx state, condition, quality, character AHD/W7
  maidenhead n maidenhood, virginity AHD/W7
Old Frisian: -hēd(e)/heid n.sfx -hood GED/ASD
Old Saxon: hēd n rank, status GED
  hēdar/hēdor adj brisk GED/ASD
Old High German: heit n.str.masc rank, status GED
  heitar adj brisk, bright, clear GED
  -heit(i) n.sfx -hood GED/ASD
German: -heit n.sfx -hood ASD
  heiter adj clear, bright ASD
Runic: haiðz-runo n bright runes GED
Old Norse: heiðr adj bright, clear LRC
Old Icelandic: heið n bright sky GED
  heiðr adj brisk GED
  heiðr n.str.masc rank, honor GED
Icelandic: heiðr adj bright (of the sky/stars) ASD
  heiðr n honor ASD
Danish: -hed n.sfx -hood ASD
Gothic: *haidus n.masc way, manner GED
Latin: caelo, caelare vb to carve, chisel, engrave LRC
  caelum, caeli n.neut sky, heavens LRC
Portuguese: céu n sky, heavens TLL
Spanish: cielo n.masc sky, heavens TLL
Middle French: *celer vb to ceil, carve W9
French: ciel n.masc sky, heavens TLL
Italian: cielo n.masc sky, heavens TLL
Avestan: ciþrō adj bright GED
Sanskrit: ketúṣ n form, brightness GED
  citra adj bright W7
Hindi: cītā n tiger W7
  chīt n printed calico W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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