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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)kek-, skeg-   'to jump, spring, move quickly; shake'

Semantic Field: to Jump, Leap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sc(e)acan, scēoc/scōc, sc(e)acen vb.str to shake; flee, hurry IEW/ASD
  sceacga n.masc hair on head W7/ASD
  sceacged adj shaggy, having hair on head ASD
  scēon vb.wk to hurry, hasten; occur, happen IEW
Middle English: *shagge n shag W7
  shaken vb to shake W7
English: shag n shaggy tangled mass/covering W7
  shaggy adj re: long/coarse/matted hair/fiber W7
  shake, shook, shaken vb.str to quiver, vibrate, agitate IEW
  skeg n surfboard fin LRC
German: Geschick n.neut fate TLL
Old Norse: skaka vb.str to shake, swing, cut W7/IEW
  skegg n.neut shag, beard LRC
  skógr n.masc wood, forest LRC
Icelandic: skegg n shag, beard ASD
Danish: overskaeg n moustache TLL
  skaeg n shag, beard TLL
  skov n wood, forest TLL
Swedish: skaka vb to shake TLL
  skog n wood, forest TLL
  skägg n shag, beard TLL
Latvian: sākt, sāku, sāku vb to begin LRC
Sanskrit: khajati vb to shake, stir W7/IEW


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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