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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. (s)kē̆p-, (s)kō̆p-, and (s)kā̆p-, (s)kē̆b(h)-, skob(h)-, and skā̆b(h)-   'to cut, shave, split with sharp tool'

Semantic Fields: to Cut; to Split


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: capūn n.masc capon W7
  gescieppan, gescōp, gescōpon, gesceapen vb.str.VI to shape, create LRC
  sceab/sce(ab)b/scæb n.masc scab, scurf GED/ASD
  sc(e)afan, scōf, scōfon, sc(e)afen vb.str to shave, scrape GED
  sceaft n.masc shaft, pole W7
  scieppan, scōp, scōpon, sceapen vb.str.VI to shape, form, create LRC
  scieppend n.masc shaper, creator LRC
  -scipe n.sfx -ship W7
Middle English: capon n capon W7
  scab n scab W7
  scaplen vb to scabble W7
  sceptre n scepter W7
  scope n scoop W7
  shaft n shaft W7
  shapen vb to shape, create W7
  shaven vb to shave W7
  -ship n.sfx -ship W7
  skopper n scupper W7
English: apocope n loss of sounds/letters at end of word AHD/W7
  bathyscaphe n navigable submersible deep-sea vessel AHD/W7
  capon n castrated male chicken AHD/W7
  comma n punctuation marking separation in sentence AHD/W7
  Fellowship prop.n band of 9 heroes in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  fellowship n group of friends/comrades LRC
  landscape n representation of natural inland scenery AHD/W7
  partnership n state of being partners W7
  sapsago n hard green cheese containing aromatic legume leaf AHD/W7
  scab n dried blood on skin AHD/W7
  scabble vb.trans to dress (stone) roughly AHD/W7
  scabies n itch, mange, skin disease W7
  scabrous adj knotty, difficult AHD/W7
  scaphocephalic adj boat-shaped, re: long narrow skull deformity AHD
  scaphoid adj navicular, boat-shaped AHD/W7
  scaphopod n/adj tooth-shell mollusk; having foot fit for burrowing AHD
  scapula n shoulder-blade bone AHD/W7
  scepter n staff/baton of authority LRC
  scoop n large ladle AHD/W7
  scoop vb to dip, dig out, use scoop W7
  scupper n bulwark opening where water on ship deck flows overboard AHD/W7
  shab n low fellow AHD/W7
  shabby adj faded/threadbare from wear AHD/W7
  shaft n long handle of spear/similar weapon AHD/W7
  shape vb to form, create AHD/W7
  shave vb to remove hair/thin layer of skin AHD/W7
  -ship n.sfx state, quality, condition AHD/W7
  syncope n temporary suspension of circulation/respiration due to brain ischemia AHD/W7
British English: sceptre n scepter LRC
Old Frisian: -skip(e) n.sfx -ship ASD
Middle Dutch: schope n scoop W7
Dutch: kapoen n.masc capon ASD
  landschap n landscape W7
  -schap n.sfx -ship W7
  schaven vb to shave GED
  schub n scab, scale, shingle TLL
Old Saxon: skaft n shaft, spear ASD
  skap n vessel KSW
  skapo n dish KSW
  -skepi n.sfx -ship ASD
Old Low German: scavan vb to shave, scrape ASD
Middle Low German: schaven vb to shave GED
  schōve n scale GED
Old High German: scaft/scafe n shaft W7/ASD
  -scaft n.sfx -ship W7
  schaben/scaban/scapan vb.str to shave GED/ASD
  scuob vb.pret shaved GED
  scuoppa n.fem scab, scale, shingle GED
  skaf n tray, vessel KDW
  skaffo n scoop, dish KDW
  skepfen vb to shape W7
Middle High German: kapūn n capon ASD
German: Kapaun n.masc capon ASD
  Landschaft n.fem landscape LRC
  Schabe n scab, itch ASD
  schaben vb to shave, scrape, grate LRC
  Schabziger n.masc sapsago W7
  Schaft n.masc shaft LRC
  Schuppe n scab, scale, shingle TLL
Old Norse: kapūn n.masc capon ASD
  skap n.neut character LRC
  skapa, skapað vb to make, shape, create; determine LRC
Old Icelandic: skafa vb to shave GED
  skōf vb.pret shaved GED
  skōfir singed crusts (at bottom of pan) GED
Icelandic: skafa vb to shave, scrape ASD
  skapt/skaft n shaft, haft (of an axe) ASD
Danish: kapun n.masc capon ASD
  skab n scab ASD
  skab n cupboard TLL
Old Swedish: skabbr n scab W7
Swedish: kapun n.masc capon ASD
  skabb n scab ASD
  skafferi n pantry TLL
  skap n cupboard TLL
Gothic: skaban vb.str.VI to shear GED
Latin: capo, caponis n.masc capon W7
  comma n.neut part of sentence W7
  scaber, scabris adj rough, scurfy W7
  scābī vb.pret shaved GED
  scabiēs n.fem scurf, roughness; scab, scabies W7/ELD
  scabō, scabere vb to shave, scrape, scratch GED
  scapula n.fem.dim shoulder, scapula W7/ELD
  scapus n.masc shaft, stalk W7
  sceptrum n.neut scepter W7
Late Latin: apocope n apocope AHD
Old French: ceptre n scepter W7
Old North French: capon n.masc castrated male chicken W7
Middle French: escapler vb to dress timber W7
Lithuanian: skàbti vb to pluck GED
Latvian: skabît vb to hew off GED
Old Church Slavonic: skoblь n scraping-knife GED
Homeric Greek: κόπτω vb to cut, strike, hammer IEW
  σκη̃πτρον n.neut staff, scepter LRC
Greek: ἀποκοπή n.fem apocope, cutting off LS
  ἀπο-κόπτω vb to cut/hew off LS
  κόμμα n.neut clause, segment; coin stamp/impression LS
  κόπτω vb to smite, strike, forge; cut/chop off LS
  προσκόπτω vb to strike against LRC
  σκάφη n.fem something dug/scooped out (e.g. tub, trough, skiff, light boat) LS
  σκᾰφίδιον n.neut.dim small skiff LS
  σκᾰφίς n.fem.dim pot, bowl, milk-pail; skiff, canoe LS
  skaphoeidēs adj re: boat W7
  σκάφος n.neut boat, ship LS
  synkopē n.fem syncope, cutting short W7
  synkoptein vb to cut short W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pret=preterite (tense)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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