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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. (s)keud-   'to shoot, throw'

Semantic Field: to Throw


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: scēata n.masc corner, angle; sheet (line), lower corner of sail W7
  scēotan, scēat, scuton, scoten vb.str to shoot GED/ASD
  scīte/scȳte/scēte n.fem sheet W7/ASD
  scot n.neut shot, shooting W7
  scutel/scytel n.masc dart, arrow, missile W7
  scyte n.masc shooting W7
  scytel/scyttel n.masc bar, bolt W7
  scyttan vb.wk to shut, cause rapid movement W7/ASD
Middle English: scot n scot W7
  shete n sheet W7
  sheten vb to shoot W7
  shittle n shuttle W7
  shot n shot W7
  shouten vb to shout W7
  shuten vb to shoot W7
  shutten vb to shut W7
  wainscot n wainscot W7
English: schuss n straight high-speed ski run AHD/W7
  scot n money assessed/paid AHD/W7
  scout vb to mock, make fun of AHD/W7
  sheet n (broad) piece of cloth AHD/W7
  sheet n line, rope/chain controlling sail AHD/W7
  shoot, shot vb.str to let fly, cause (missile) to fly AHD/W7
  shoot n new (plant) growth AHD/W7
  shot n act/result of shooting AHD/W7
  shout vb to utter sudden loud cry AHD/W7
  shut, shut vb to close door/opening AHD/W7
  shuttle n device to pass/shoot thread of woof between threads of warp AHD/W7
  slingshot n Y-shaped stick with elastic strap for flinging small stones AHD
  wainscot n fine grade of oak for woodwork AHD/W7
Old Frisian: sciāta/skiata vb to shoot GED/ASD
  scot n missile; tribute, contribution ASD
  sket n shooting ASD
  sketta vb to stop, close ASD
Middle Dutch: wagenschot n wainscot W7
Dutch: schieten vb to shoot LRC
Old Saxon: sciotan vb to shoot GED
Old High German: scōzo n.masc lap, bosom ASD
  scozo n.neut missile ASD
  scuz n.str.masc speed; sudden blow W7
  skiozzan/sciozan vb.str to shoot GED/ASD
Middle High German: schoz n tax, tribute ASD
German: schiessen vb to shoot LRC
  Schuss n.masc shot W7
Old Norse: skjóta vb to shoot, throw LRC
  skot n shot; contribution W7
  skutill n bolt W7
  skūti vb to taunt W7
Old Icelandic: skjōta vb to shoot GED
Icelandic: skauti n sheet, kerchief ASD
  skjóta n to shoot; pay; push quickly ASD
  skot n.neut shot, shooting; missile; contribution ASD
Danish: skyde vb to shoot LRC
Swedish: skjuta vb to shoot LRC
  skott n shot TLL
Crimean Gothic: *schieten/schietē vb to shoot (an arrow) GED/CGo
French: chute n.fem fall W7
Lithuanian: skudrùs adj quick GED
Old Church Slavonic: is-kydati vb to throw out GED
Sanskrit: códati vb to incite GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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