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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: slenk-, sleng-   'to turn, wind; creep, slink'

Semantic Fields: to Turn; to Wind, Wrap; to Creep, Crawl


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: slincan vb.str to slink, creep W7/ASD
  slingan vb.str to wind, worm, twist W7/ASD
Middle English: slingen vb to sling W7
  slinken vb to slink W7
English: lumbricoid n creature resembling earthworm AHD/W7
  sling, slung vb.str.trans to fling, cast forcibly AHD/W7
  slingshot n Y-shaped stick with elastic strap for flinging small stones AHD
  slink, slunk vb.str.intrans to go/move furtively/stealthily AHD/W7
  Slinker prop.n a.k.a. Gollum in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Dutch: slang n snake TLL
Old Saxon: slango n snake KSW
Old High German: slango n snake KDW
  slīhhan vb to slink, creep, crawl ASD
  slingan vb to wind, worm, twist ASD
German: Schlange n snake TLL
  schlingen vb to wind, twist, weave ASD
Icelandic: slyngva vb to wind ASD
Danish: slange n snake TLL
Old Swedish: slinka vb to slink, creep IEW
Latin: lumbricus n.masc earthworm W7
Lithuanian: sliñkti, sleñka, sliñko vb to pass, slip LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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