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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)mer-   'to mourn, remember, think of, care for'

Semantic Fields: to Remember; to Think, Reflect; Care (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gemimor vb.past.ptc known GED
  mām(o)rian vb.wk to think out, plan GED
  mimorian vb to remember W7
  murnan vb.wk to mourn, sorrow for GED/ASD
Middle English: demeoren vb to linger W7
  demerit n demerit W7
  memorable adj memorable W7
  memorandum n memorandum W7
  memorie n memory W7
  merit n merit W7
  mournen vb to mourn W7
  remembren vb to remember W7
English: allomerism n chemical without crystalline variability AHD/W7
  commemorate vb.trans to call to remembrance AHD/W7
  demerit n offense AHD/W7
  demur vb.intrans to interpose an objection AHD/W7
  dimer n two identical molecules combined AHD
  emeritus adj holding (after retirement) same (honorary) title AHD/W7
  isomer n one of several chemicals with same elements but different structure AHD/W2I
  memorable adj notable, worth remembering AHD/W7
  memorandum n informal record AHD/W7
  memory n power/process of recalling/reproducing what was learned AHD/W7
  -mere n.sfx part, segment, partition AHD/W7
  meretricious adj re: prostitute AHD/W7
  meristem n formative plant cells capable of indefinite division AHD/W7
  merit n reward/punishment due AHD/W7
  merit vb to earn, deserve, be worthy of W7
  -merous adj.sfx having as part(s) AHD/W7
  Mimir prop.n primal deity renowned for knowledge/wisdom (Norse mythology) LRC
  monomer n simple unpolymerized chemical compound AHD/W7
  mora n minimal unit of measure: duration of average short syllable AHD/W7
  moratorium n authorized delay in performance of obligation AHD/W7
  moratory adj re: delay in performance of obligation AHD/W7
  mourn vb to feel/express grief/sorrow AHD/W7
  polymer n chemical compound of repeating structural units W7
  remember vb to bring to mind, think of again AHD/W7
  remora n fish with suction disk on head AHD/W7
  trimer n three identical molecules combined AHD
Old Saxon: mornian vb to mourn, be sorrowful GED
  mornon/mornōn vb to mourn, be sorrowful GED/ASD
Old High German: mornēn vb.wk to mourn, be sorrowful GED
Old Norse: Mīmir prop.n Mimir: decapitated Norse god whose head recites secret knowledge to Odin W7
Old Icelandic: Mīmir prop.n Mimir GED
Icelandic: morna vb to mourn ASD
Gothic: *maurnan vb.wk.III to worry, concern oneself GED
Latin: commemoratus vb.ptc reminded of W7
  commemoro, commemorāre vb to commemorate W7
  demoror, demorāri vb.dep to stop, hinder, delay CLD
  emerior, emereri vb to serve out one's term W7
  emeritus vb.ptc who has served W7
  immemor, immemoris adj heedless LRC
  memini vb.defc remember LRC
  memor, memoris adj mindful (of), remembering GED
  memorabilis adj memorable W7
  memorandus ger to be remembered W7
  memoria, memoriae n.fem memory, remembrance, recollection GED
  memorō, memorāre, memorāvī, memorātus vb to tell, relate, mention LRC
  mereo, merēre vb to earn, serve, deserve W7
  mereor, mereri vb.dep to serve with merit W7
  meretricius adj of a prostitute W7
  meretrix, meretricis n.fem prostitute W7
  meritum n.neut merit W7
  meritus vb.ptc merited W7
  mora n.fem delay W7
  moratus vb.ptc lingering W7
  moror, morari vb.dep to delay, linger W7
  remora n.fem delay W7
  remoror, remorari vb.dep to delay W7
Late Latin: memoror, memorāri vb.dep to be mindful of W7
  moratorium n.neut delay W7
  moratorius adj dilatory W7
  rememor, rememorāri vb.dep to remember W7
New Latin: -merus sfx part, -merous W7
  moratorium n.neut legally authorized delay W7
  morula n.fem brief delay W7
Old French: demorer vb to linger W7
  merite n.masc merit W7
Middle French: demerite n.masc demerit W7
  mémoire n.fem memory W7
  mérite n.masc merit W7
  remembrer vb to remember W7
French: -mère sfx -mere W7
  moratoire n.masc moratory W7
Lithuanian: merėti vb to concern oneself GED
Albanian: meritoj vb to merit LRC
Greek: διαμερίζω vb to cleave LRC
  μαρτυρέω vb to bear witness LRC
  μαρτυρία n.fem testimony LRC
  μάρτυρος n.gen of the witness GED
  μάρτυς n witness GED
  -merēs sfx of parts, partially W7
  merizein vb to divide W7
  μέριμνα n.fem care, anxious thought LRC
  meristos adj divided W7
  μέρμερος adj causing much care, grief GED
  mermēra n.fem care W7
  μέρος n.neut part LRC
Armenian: mormok' n care, discontent GED
Avestan: mi-mara- adj mindful GED
  (-š)mar- vb to notice, be mindful of GED
Sanskrit: smará- n remembrance GED
  smárati vb to remember, long for GED
  smṛti- n recollection GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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