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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. (s)ner-   'to turn, wind, etc.'

Semantic Fields: to Turn; to Wind, Wrap

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: ge-sneorcan vb to shrivel up GED
  nearu adj narrow; full of hardship LRC
Middle English: narowe adj narrow W7
English: narrow adj slender, less than standard width W7
  Nori prop.n dwarf in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
W-Germanic  
Dutch: snor n moustache TLL
Old Saxon: naru adj narrow; oppressive ASD
Old High German: narwa n.wk.fem scar GED
  narwo n.wk.masc scar GED
  snar(a)ha n.fem loop GED
  snerhan vb.wk to twist, wind GED
  snuor n cord W7
German: Narbe n.fem scar LRC
  Schnur n cord, string LRC
  Schnurrbart n moustache TLL
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: Nóri prop.n.masc Nori (Voluspa dwarf) TPE
  nóri n.masc turner, winder LRC
Old Icelandic: snara vb.wk to turn GED
  snorkinn vb.past.ptc shriveled GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
past=past (tense)
prop=proper
ptc=participle
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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