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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. (s)pen(-d)-   'to pull, spin'

Semantic Field: to Draw, Pull


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: pund n.neut pound, pint W7
  spang n.fem clasp, buckle, fastening W7
  spin(e)l n.fem spindle W7/ASD
  spinnan, spann, spunnon, spunnen vb.str to spin W7/ASD
  spīþra n spider KEW
Middle English: countrepesen vb to counterpoise W7
  dependen vb to depend W7
  dispensen vb to dispense W7
  expenden vb to expend W7
  paynter n painter W7
  pendaunt n pendant W7
  pensif adj pensive W7
  pension n pension W7
  pentis n penthouse W7
  perpend n perpend W7
  perpendiculer adj perpendicular W7
  perpoynt n perpend W7
  poisen vb to poise, weigh W7
  ponderen vb to ponder W7
  ponderous adj ponderous W7
  pound n pound W7
  purpensen vb to deliberate, premeditate W7
  recompensen vb to recompense W7
  spang n shiny ornament W7
  spangel n.dim spangle W7
  spider n spider W7
  spindel n spindle W7
  spinnen vb to spin W7
  spithre n spider W7
  stipendy n stipend W7
  suspenden vb to suspend W7
  vilipenden vb to vilipend, regard as contemptible W7
English: antependium n hanging for front of altar/pulpit/lectern AHD/W7
  append vb.trans to affix, attach AHD/W7
  appendix n appendage AHD/W7
  avoirdupois n weights (in a certain series) AHD/W7
  compendium n abstract, brief summary of larger work/field of knowledge AHD/W7
  compensate vb to counterbalance, be equivalent to AHD/W7
  counterpoise vb.trans to counterbalance AHD/W7
  depend vb.intrans to be contingent AHD/W7
  dispense vb to parcel out AHD/W7
  equiponderate vb to equal in weight/force AHD/W7
  expend vb.trans to spend, pay out AHD/W7
  geoponic adj agricultural AHD/W7
  impend vb.intrans to hang suspended AHD/W7
  lithopone n white pigment: precipitated zinc sulfide/barium sulfate AHD/W7
  painter n line for towing/securing boat AHD/W7
  pansy n flowering garden plant AHD/W7
  penchant n liking, strong leaning AHD/W7
  pendant/pendent n/adj (something) suspended/supported from above AHD/W7
  pendentive n triangular spherical vaulting AHD/W7
  pendulous adj poised without visible support AHD/W7
  pendulum n freely swinging body suspended from fixed point AHD/W7
  pensile adj pendent, hanging AHD/W7
  pension n monetary (e.g. retirement) sum paid regularly AHD/W7
  pensive adj musingly/dreamily thinking/thoughtful AHD/W7
  penthouse n shed/roof attached to/sloping from wall/building AHD/W7
  perpend/perpent n brick/large stone reaching through wall AHD/W7
  perpend vb to ponder, reflect on carefully AHD/W7
  perpendicular adj exactly upright/vertical AHD/W7
  peso n Spanish silver coin AHD/W7
  poise vb to balance AHD/W7
  ponder vb to weigh in mind AHD/W7
  ponderous adj of very great weight AHD/W7
  pound n unit of mass/weight AHD/W7
  prepense adj purpensed AHD/W7
  preponderate vb to outweigh AHD/W7
  propend vb.intrans to incline AHD/W7
  purpensed vb.ptc premeditated, planned/deliberated beforehand AHD/W7
  recompense vb.trans to repay, give compensation to AHD/W7
  spangle n small shiny metal ornament AHD/W7
  spider n arachnid having 2-part body/4 pairs of legs AHD/W7
  spin, spun vb.str to draw out/twist fiber into yarn/thread AHD/W7
  spindle n round rod/pin with tapered ends AHD/W7
  spontaneous adj voluntary, arising without external constraint/stimulus AHD/W7
  stipend n monetary sum paid periodically for services/expenses AHD/W7
  suspend vb to debar temporarily from office/function/privilege AHD/W7
  vilipend vb.trans to contemn, hold/treat as of little worth/account AHD/W7
Old Frisian: pund n pound ASD
Dutch: spin n spider TLL
Old Low German: punt n pound ASD
  spinnila n spindle ASD
Old High German: pfunt n pound ASD
  spanga n.fem clasp ASD
  spinna n spider KDW
  spin(n)ala n spindle ASD
  spinnan vb to spin W7
  spīsa n food KDW
German: Spange n clasp ASD
  Speise n.fem food, meal LRC
  Spesen costs, charges, expenses LRC
  Spind n.neut locker, wardrobe LRC
  Spinne n.fem spider TLL
  Spinnen n.neut spinning LRC
  spinnen vb to spin LRC
Old Norse: pund n pound W7
  spöng n spangle W7
Icelandic: pund n pound ASD
  spinna vb to spin ASD
  spöng n.fem clasp ASD
Danish: spise n food LRC
Swedish: spindel n spider TLL
  spis n food LRC
Gothic: pund n pound ASD
  spinnan vb to spin ASD
Latin: appendix, appendicis n.fem addition, attachment, continuation W7
  appendō, appendere vb to weigh out, hang to something W7
  compendium n.neut saving, shortcut W7
  compendo, compendere vb to weigh together W7
  compensatus vb.ptc weighed, balanced, compensated W7
  compēnsō, compēnsāre vb to weigh, balance, compensate W7
  compensus vb.ptc weighed W7
  dēpendeō, dēpendēre vb to depend, hang on/from/down W7
  dispendō, dispendere vb to weigh out W7
  dispēnsō, dispēnsāre vb to dispense, pay out, distribute W7
  dispensus vb.ptc distributed W7
  expendō, expendere vb to expend, pay/weigh out W7
  impendeō, impendēre vb to overhang, be near/at hand W7
  impendō, impendere, impendī, impēnsum vb to lay/weigh out, use, devote LRC
  pendens, pendentis adj/vb.ptc hanging W7
  pendeō, pendēre vb to hang, be suspended W7
  pendō, pendere vb to hang, weigh, suspend W7
  pendulum n.neut pendulum, something hanging W7
  pendulus adj hanging W7
  pensilis adj hanging W7
  pensio, pensionis n.fem pension W7
  pēnsō, pēnsāre vb to weigh, compare, ponder W7
  pensum n.neut weight W7
  pensus vb.ptc hung, paid W7
  perpendicularis adj perpendicular W7
  perpendiculum n.neut plumb line W7
  perpendō, perpendere vb to weigh carefully, examine W7
  ponderō, ponderāre vb to weigh, ponder W7
  ponderosus adj heavy W7
  pondus, ponderis n.neut weight W7
  praeponderatus vb.ptc outweighed W7
  praeponderō, praeponderāre vb to outweigh W7
  propendeo, propendēre vb to hang down W7
  sponte adv voluntarily W7
  stipendium n.neut pay W7
  suspendō, suspendere vb to suspend W7
Vulgar Latin: pendico, pendicare vb to hang W7
  pendō, pendere vb to hang W7
  *pēsum n weight AHD
Late Latin: recompēnsō, recompēnsāre vb to recompense W7
  spontaneus adj spontaneous W7
Medieval Latin: aequiponderatus vb.ptc made to have equal weight W7
  antependium n.neut antependium W7
  appenticium n.neut appendage W7
  compendium n.neut compendium, collection W7
  dispēnsō, dispēnsāre vb to grant dispensation W7
  equiponderō, equiponderāre vb to weigh out equally W7
  spenda n pantry LRC
  spēsa n food KDW
  vilipendō, vilipendere vb to slander W7
New Latin: pendulum n.neut body suspended to swing freely W7
Portuguese: pesar n grief TLL
Spanish: pesar n regret TLL
  peso n.fem Spanish currency unit W7
Old French: avoirdupois valuables, lit. goods of weight W7
  peis/pois n weight AHD
  penser vb to think W7
  purpenser vb to deliberate, premeditate W7
  suspendre vb to hang up, interrupt W7
Middle French: appentis n.masc penthouse W7
  contrepeser vb to counterweight W7
  dependre vb to depend W7
  pendant prep while W7
  pendoir n.masc clothesline W7
  pendre vb to hang W7
  pensée n thought W7
  pensif adj pensive W7
  pension n.fem pension W7
  pentoir n.masc clothesline W7
  perpain n.masc perpend/perpent W7
  perpendiculer vb to set in perpendicular position W7
  peser vb to weigh W7
  pois- stem weight W7
  ponderer vb to ponder W7
  pondereux adj heavy W7
  purpenser vb to deliberate W7
  recompenser vb to recompense W7
  vilipender vb to vilipend W7
French: appendre vb to hang to something W7
  penchant n.masc leaning, tendency W7
  pencher vb to incline W7
  pendant prep during TLL
  pendentif n.masc jewel hanging from neck chain W7
Greek: γεω-πονέω vb to plow, till LS
  γεω-πόνος n.masc farmer, husbandman LS
  πονέω vb to toil, labor, work hard LRC
  πονηρός adj evil, wicked LRC
  πόνος n.masc grief; labor LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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