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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. sp(h)er-, sp(h)erə-   'to rush, push away, act rashly, etc.'

Semantic Fields: to Hurry, Hasten; Fast, Swift, Quick; to Push, Shove


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: spora/spura n.masc spur W7
  spurnan/spornan vb.str to spurn, kick W7/ASD
Middle English: spore/spure n spur W7
  spurnen vb to spurn W7
English: hemisphere n half-sphere; one-half of Earth TLL
  sphere n ball, round object LRC
  spoor n track/trail of animal AHD
  spur n pointed device on rider's heel for urging horse AHD/W7
  spurn vb to stumble AHD/W7
Old Saxon: spurnan vb to spurn, tread, strike with feet  
Old High German: sporo n spur ASD
  spurnan vb to spurn, kick W7
German: Sporn n.masc spur LRC
Old Norse: spyrna, spyrnad vb to spurn, kick, place the feet LRC
Icelandic: sperna vb to spurn, kick ASD
  spori n spur ASD
Latin: asper, aspera, asperum adj rough, harsh LRC
  sperno, spernere vb to spurn W7
Greek: σπαίρω vb to gasp, quiver LRC
  σφαι̃ρα n sphere LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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