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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)plei-   'to cut, split'

Semantic Fields: to Cut; to Split

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: flint n.masc flint W7
Middle English: flendris n.pl flinders W7
  flint n flint W7
  splint n splint W7
  splinter n splinter W7
English: flense vb.trans to strip off (skin/blubber) AHD/W7
  flinders n.pl fragments, splinters AHD/W7
  flint n massive hard quartz AHD/W7
  splent n chip, shaving, splinter, fragment IEW
  splice vb.trans to unite (e.g. ropes) by interweaving strands AHD/W7
  splint n small plate/strip of wood/metal AHD/W7
  splinter n sliver, thin piece split off lengthwise AHD/W7
  split, split vb.anom to divide along grain/seam/layer AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Middle Dutch: splitten vb to split W7
Dutch: flensen vb to flense W7
  splissen vb to splice W7
Middle Low German: splente/splinte n splint W7
Old High German: flins n pebble, hard stone W7
  spaltan vb to split W7
Middle High German: vlins n.masc flint ASD
German: Flint n.masc flint LRC
  spalten vb to split LRC
  spleissen vb to splice LRC
  Splitter n.masc splinter LRC
N-Germanic  
Danish: flint n.masc/fem flint ASD
Swedish: flinta n.fem flint ASD

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
anom=anomalous/indeclinable
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
pl=plural (number)
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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