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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: srīg-, srīgos-   'cold, frost'

Semantic Fields: Cold, Frigid; Ice, Frost

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
English: frigid adj intensely cold AHD/W7
  frisson n thrill, shudder AHD/W7
  refrigerate vb.trans to make/keep cold/cool AHD/W7
Italic  
Latin: frīgeō, frīgēre vb to be cold W7
  frīgerō, frīgerāre vb to cool W7
  frigidus adj cold, frigid W7
  frigus, frigoris n.neut frost, cold LRC
  refrigeratus vb.ptc refrigerated W7
  refrigero, refrigerare vb to refrigerate, make cold (again) W7
Portuguese: frio adj cold, frigid TLL
Spanish: frio adj cold, frigid TLL
French: frisson n.masc frisson, shiver W7
  froid adj cold, frigid TLL
Italian: freddo adj cold, frigid TLL
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: ῥῑγέω vb to shudder with cold/fear LRC
  ῥι̃γος n.neut frost, cold LRC
  ῥῑγόω vb to be cold LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
ptc=participle
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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