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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)teig-   'to stick, prick; sharp'

Semantic Fields: to Bore; Sharp


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sticca n.masc stick, peg W7
  stice n.str.masc stitch, prick; point/moment in time GED
  sticel adj steep GED
  sticel n.masc stickle; point, tip, goad GED
  stician vb.wk to stick, prick GED
  tiger n tiger W7
Middle English: instinct n instinct W7
  steke n steak W7
  stiche n stitch W7
  stik n stick W7
  stikken vb to stick W7
  stykylbak n stickleback W7
  thistel n thistle W7
  tigre n tiger W7
English: astigmatism n lens defect causing blurred/imperfect image AHD/W7
  distinguish vb to perceive as separate/different AHD/W7
  etiquette n behavior observed in polite social/official life AHD/W7
  extinguish vb.trans to quench, cause to cease burning AHD/W7
  instigate vb.trans to provoke, goad/urge forward AHD/W7
  instinct n natural impulse/aptitude/capacity AHD/W7
  snickersnee n knife resembling sword AHD
  steak n meat sliced from fleshy beef carcass, usu. broiled AHD/W7
  stich n var. of stitch GED/W7
  stick, stuck vb.str to stab, pierce with pointed tool/weapon AHD/W7
  stick n woody part/piece of tree/shrub AHD/W7
  stickleback n fish with sharp spines GED/W7
  stigma n brand, scar left by hot iron AHD/W7
  stitch n sudden sharp pain, esp. in side AHD/W7
  stoup n beaker GED
  thistle n prickly composite plant AHD/W7
  Thistlewool prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  ticket n document serving as permit/license/certificate AHD/W7
  tiger n large carnivorous Asiatic cat AHD/W7
Old Frisian: steka vb.str to stick, stab, prick GED
  steke n.str.masc point, moment; stab, prick GED/ASD
Middle Dutch: steken vb to stick W7
Old Saxon: stekan vb.str to stick, stab, pierce GED
  stekul adj steep GED
Middle Low German: stekel n point, tip GED
  stickel n point, tip GED
  stōp n stoup GED
Old High German: distill n thistle W7
  steccho n stick, peg ASD
  stechal adj steep GED
  stehhal n.str.masc stoup GED
  stehhan vb.str to stick, stab, prick GED
  stichil/stihhil n.str.masc point, tip GED/ASD
  sticken vb.wk to prick GED
  stih(h) n.str.masc point, moment; prick, stitch GED/ASD
  stouf n.str.masc stoup GED
Middle High German: stecken vb to stick, remain fixed ASD
German: Distel n.fem thistle LRC
  Stachel n.masc thorn, spike, prickle LRC
  stechen vb to stick, prick, pierce LRC
Old Norse: steik n steak W7
  steikja vb to roast on stake W7
  stik n stick, stake W7
Old Icelandic: staup n stoup GED
  stikill n tip (esp. of drinking horn) GED
Icelandic: staup n.neut stoup, cup ASD
  stika n.fem stick ASD
  stikill n pointed end of horn ASD
Danish: stik n stab ASD
Swedish: stick n prick, stitch, stab ASD
Gothic: stikls n.masc stoup, chalice GED
  stiks n.str.masc point, moment in time LRC
Latin: dīstinguō, dīstinguere, dīstinxī, dīstinctum vb to divide, distinguish LRC
  extinguo, extinguere vb to extinguish W7
  instigatus vb.ptc incited W7
  īnstīgō, īnstīgāre vb to incite, instigate GED
  instinctus adj impelled W7
  instinguō, instinguere vb to incite W7
  stigma, stigmatis n.fem mark, brand W7
  stinguō, stinguere vb to extinguish, to put out W7
  tigris n.masc/fem tiger W7
Old French: tigre n.masc tiger W7
Middle French: distinguer vb to separate, distinguish W7
  estiquet n.masc attachment W7
  estiquier vb to attach W7
French: étiquette n.fem etiquette, tag W7
Old Prussian: sticlo n glass GED
Lithuanian: stìklas n glass GED
Latvian: stikls n glass GED
Old Church Slavonic: stьklo n glass GED
Greek: στίγμα n.neut mark, tattoo LRC
  στιγμή n.fem spot, point LRC
  stizein vb to tattoo W7
  τίγρις n.fem tiger LRC
Avestan: tig(h)ra- adj pointed GED
Sanskrit: tigmá- adj pointed GED
  téjate vb to be sharp GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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