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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. stel-   'to put, place'

Semantic Field: to Put, Place, Set, Lay


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: apostol n.masc apostle W7
  ge-steald n.str.neut dwelling GED
  hæg(e)-steald/heh-steald n.str.neut youth, bachelor, servant GED/ASD
  hagu-steald/hago-steald n.str.neut youth, bachelor, servant GED/ASD
  stealc adj lofty W7
  stealdan vb.str.VII to have, possess IEW/GED
  steall n.masc stall, place, (standing) position IEW/ASD
  stellan/stillan vb to set, place IEW/ASD
  stole n.fem stole W7
Middle English: apostel/apostle n apostle MEV/W7
  epistle n epistle W7
  forstall n act of waylaying W7
  stale adj stale W7
  stalke n stalk W7
  stall n stall W7
  stallion n stallion W7
  stille adj still W7
  stilte n stilt W7
  stole n stole W7
  stout adj stout W7
English: apostle n one sent (on mission) AHD/W7
  collocate vb to put in place TLL
  couch n long cushioned seating TLL
  diastole n rhythmically recurrent expansion AHD/W7
  epistle n letter (in New Testament) AHD/W7
  gestalt n integration of physical/biological/psychological phenomena AHD/W7
  install vb.trans to put/set in place AHD/W7
  installment n periodic part in which debt is paid AHD/W7
  local adj re: (nearby) locale/position W7
  locale n site, place, scene W7
  locate vb to place, settle, establish site/limits W7
  locavore n one who prefers locally grown food LRC
  locus n locale, position LRC
  pedestal n foot/support of late classic/neoclassic column AHD/W7
  peristalsis n successive waves of hollow muscle contraction AHD/W7
  stale adj tasteless/unpalatable from age AHD/W7
  stalk n main stem of herbaceous plant AHD/W7
  stall n compartment in barn/stable AHD/W7
  stallion n uncastrated male horse AHD/W7
  stele n central vascular portion of vascular plant axis AHD/W7
  still adj quiet, motionless AHD/W7
  stilt n pole with foot-rest/strap for elevating wearer above ground AHD/W7
  stole n robe, long loose garment AHD/W7
  stolid adj unemotional, hard to arouse/excite AHD/W7
  stollen n rich yeast bread with citron/raisins/chopped nuts AHD
  stolon n horizontal branch propagating from plant base AHD/W7
  stout adj of strong character AHD/W7
  stull n round timber for supporting sides/back of mine AHD/W7
  stultify vb.trans to allege/prove to be of unsound mind AHD/W7
  systaltic adj pulsing, marked by regular contraction/dilatation AHD/W7
Old Frisian: stal(l) n.str.masc stall, barn, (standing) place GED/ASD
Middle Dutch: stel adj stale W7
Old Saxon: haga-stold/hagu-stald/haga-stald n youth, bachelor, servant GED/ASD
  stellian vb to place IEW
Old High German: hagu-stalt/haga-stalt/haga-stolt n youth, bachelor, servant IEW/GED/ASD
  Hagu-stolt prop.n Hagustolt GED
  stal(l) n.str.masc stall, place; barn, stable, dwelling IEW/GED
  stellen/stellan vb to place IEW/ASD
  stelza n stilt W7
  stilli adj still W7
  stolz adj proud W7
Middle High German: stal(l) n.str.masc stall, place; barn, stable, dwelling IEW
German: Gestalt n.fem form, shape, figure, gestalt W7
  Hagestolz n youth, bachelor, servant GED
  Stall n.masc stall, sty, kennel, stable LRC
  stellen vb to place LRC
  Stelze n.fem stilt LRC
  still adj still LRC
  Stille n.fem stillness LRC
  Stolle n.fem stollen, fruit loaf LRC
  Stollen n.masc post, support W7
  stolz adj proud LRC
Bavarian: Stollen n.masc stollen, fruit loaf AHD
Runic: Hagu-stadaz prop.n Hagustadaz GED
  Hagu-staldaz prop.n Hagustaldaz GED
  Hagu-staldiz prop.n Hagustaldiz GED
Old Norse: stallr n.masc stall; perch (for hawk) LRC
Old Icelandic: hag-stœðr adj fair, favorable GED
  hauk-staldr n.str.masc chieftain GED
  (hug-)stœðr adj firm, steadfast, fixed in one's mind GED
  stallr n stall, stand; crib, rack, frame IEW
  stāl n.str.neut granary GED
Icelandic: stallr n stall; shelf ASD
  stola n.fem stole ASD
Norwegian: hog-stall n.masc bachelor GED
Danish: stilk n stalk TLL
Swedish: hog-stall n.masc bachelor GED
  stjälk n stalk TLL
Gothic: and-stald n.neut additional aid/supply GED
  *and-staldan vb.str.VII to supply IEW/GED
  ga-staldan vb to gain, acquire, possess IEW
Old Latin: stlocus n.masc locus W7/IEW
Latin: collocō, collocāre vb to collocate TLL
  epistola/epistula n.fem letter W7
  locō, locāre, locāvī, locātus vb to locate, arrange LRC
  locus, loci n.masc locus W7
  stola n.fem stole W7
  stolidus adj dull, stupid W7
  stolo n.masc branch, sucker W7
  stultus adj foolish W7
Late Latin: apostolus n.masc apostle, messenger W7
  stultifico, stultificāre vb to make foolish W7
Middle Latin: gastaldio/gastaldius n steward (of royal estates), governor (of district) GED
  kastaldis n steward (of royal estates), governor (of district) GED
Medieval Latin: installo, installare vb to install W7
  stallum n.neut stall W7
New Latin: peristalsis n.fem involuntary intestinal contractions W7
Portuguese: lugar n place TLL
Spanish: lugar n place TLL
Old French: apostle n.masc apostle, messenger W7
  epistle n.fem epistle, letter W7
  estal n place AHD
  estaler vb to place, fix W7
Middle French: installer vb to install W7
  piedestal n.masc pedestal W7
French: lieu n place TLL
Old Italian: piedestallo n.masc pedestal W7
Old Prussian: staldis n stall GED
Lithuanian: stal̃das n stall GED
Latvian: stal̃lis n stall GED
Homeric Greek: στέλλω vb to equip, arrange, put in order LRC
  στήλη n.fem stone, pillar, monument LRC
Greek: ἀπο-στέλλω vb to send away LRC
  apo-stolos n.masc apostle, messenger W7
  δια-στέλλω vb to expand, give express orders LRC
  dia-stolē n.fem dilatation W7
  ἐπι-στέλλω vb to send to LRC
  epi-stolē n message, letter W7
  peri-staltikos adj peristaltic W7
  περι-στέλλω vb to wrap around LRC
  stellein vb to place, install, set up W7
  stolē n.fem stole, equipment W7
  στόλος n.masc army LRC
  systaltos adj verbal W7
  sy-stellein vb to contract W7
Armenian: stełn n branch W7/HH


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
HH=Heinrich Hübschmann: Armenische Grammatik (1897)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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