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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. (s)teu-   'to hit, push, thrust'

Semantic Fields: to Hit, Strike, Beat; to Push, Shove


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: do-tuit makes to fall GED
Middle Irish: tūag n.fem bow; axe W7/IED
Old English: stēap adj steep, deep W7/GED
  stēap n.masc stoup, drinking vessel GED
  stēop- pfx step- W7
  stēpel n steeple, tower W7
  stocc n.masc stock, base of tree W7
  stūpian vb.wk to stoop W7/ASD
  stybb/stubb/stebb n.masc stub W7/ASD
  styntan vb.wk to stint, blunt, dull W7/ASD
Middle English: percen vb to pierce W7
  step- pfx step- W7
  stepe adj steep W7
  stepel n steeple W7
  stinten vb to stint W7
  stok n stock, base of tree W7
  stoupen vb to stoop W7
  stubb n stub W7
  student n student W7
  studie n study W7
  stutten vb to stutter W7
  toile n toil W7
  toilen vb to toil W7
English: alpenstock n long iron-pointed staff for mountain climbing AHD/W7
  antitype n one foreshadowed by/identified with earlier symbol/type AHD/W7
  archetype n prototype, original pattern/model from which things of same type are copied AHD/W7
  contuse vb.trans to bruise, injure (tissue) without laceration AHD/W7
  etude n piece of music for honing particular technique AHD/W7
  etui n small ornamental case AHD/W7
  etwee, etweese n.obs instrument(s) used for holding/plucking AHD/W7
  linstock n forked staff with iron foot used to hold lighted match for cannon firing AHD/W7
  obtund vb to dull, deaden, make less intense AHD
  perse adj dark grayish blue/purple AHD
  pertussis n whooping cough AHD/W7
  pierce vb to stab, run pointed weapon into/through AHD/W7
  ratatouille n vegetable stew seasoned with herbs/garlic AHD
  retuse adj having apex rounded/obtuse with slight notch AHD/W7
  shtick characteristic trait/talent/attribute AHD
  steep adj high, lofty, sharply angled upward AHD/W7
  steeple n tall structure with small spire atop church tower AHD/W7
  step- pfx related by virtue of parental remarriage (not by blood) AHD/W7
  stint vb to stop, put an end to AHD/W7
  stiver n Netherlands monetary unit: 1/20 gulden AHD/W7
  Stock prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  stock n log, stump, block of wood AHD/W7
  stoke vb to stir/poke/rake (fire), supply fuel to IEW/W7
  stoker n one who stokes furnace AHD
  stoop vb to bend body forward/downward, opt. while bending knees AHD/W7
  stoss adj facing in direction from which overriding glacier impinges AHD/W7
  stub n stump AHD/W7
  stucco n exterior wall covering usu. of sand/portland cement/small amounts of lime AHD/W7
  student n scholar, learner AHD/W7
  study n reverie, state of contemplation AHD/W7
  stupefy vb.trans to benumb, make dull/stupid/insensible AHD/W7
  stupendous adj marvelous, awesome, causing astonishment/wonder AHD/W7
  stupid adj obtuse, slow of mind AHD/W7
  stut vb to stutter AHD/W7
  stutter vb.freq to speak in repetitive spasms AHD/W7
  Stybba prop.n Merry's pony in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Styx prop.n Hades river over which dead souls are ferried by Charon (Greek mythology) LRC
  toil n.arch battle, struggle AHD/W7
  toil vb.obs to fight, argue, dispute, struggle, battle OED
  tuck n sound of drumbeat AHD/W7
  tuk vb to beat the drum AHD/W7
  tussis n cough AHD
  tweeze vb.trans to pluck/remove with tweezers AHD/W7
  tweezers small pincer-shaped tools for holding/plucking/manipulating AHD/W7
  tympanum n eardrum, tympanic membrane AHD/W7
  tympany n percussive resonance W7
  type n thing/person that foreshadows another AHD/W7
Old Frisian: stāp adj steep, tall ASD
  stēt n thrust GED
  stēta vb.wk to thrust, push GED
  stokk n stock ASD
Old Dutch: stuypen vb to bow ASD
Middle Dutch: stuken vb to push, stoke W7
Dutch: lontstok n lit. match-stick W7
  stok n stick W7
  stoken vb to stoke AHD
  stotteren vb to stutter W7
  stuiver n stiver W7
Old Saxon: stōtan vb to thrust GED
Old Low German: stokk n stock, trunk, log ASD
Old High German: stiof- pfx step- W7
  stoc n stick W7
  stocch n stock, trunk, log ASD
  stōz n.str.masc thrust GED
  stōzan vb.str to thrust GED
  stucki n piece, crust W7
Middle High German: stief adj steep W7
  stutz n.masc thrust GED
  stutzen vb.wk to avoid GED
German: Alpenstock n.masc alpenstock W7
  Stock n.masc staff W7
  Stoss n.masc push, thrust LRC
  stossen vb to push W7
  stutzen vb to shorten, truncate; hesitate LRC
Old Norse: staup n lump, knoll, cup W7
  stokkr n.masc stock, beam LRC
  stuttr adj scant W7
Old Icelandic: stauta vb to thrust GED
  steytr n thrust GED
  stūtr n.str.masc young ox; stump of horn GED
Icelandic: steypa vb to cause to stoop ASD
  stokkr n stock, trunk, log ASD
  stubbi/stubbr n stub ASD
  stúpa vb.str to stoop ASD
  stytta vb to shorten ASD
Danish: stok n stick TLL
  stupe vb to stoop, fall ASD
Swedish: stupa vb to stoop, tilt, fall ASD
  stupande adj stooping, sloping ASD
Gothic: *stautan vb.str.VII to strike GED
Latin: archetypum n.neut archetype W7
  contundo, contundere vb to crush, bruise W7
  contusus vb.ptc crushed W7
  retundo, retundere vb to pound back, blunt W7
  retusus adj blunted W7
  studens, studentis vb.ptc studying W7
  studeo, studēre, studui vb to study, be eager, be fond of LRC
  studiosus, studiosa, studiosum adv eager, studious LRC
  studium, studii n.neut study, zeal, passion, interest LRC
  stupefacio, stupefacere vb to stupefy W7
  stupendus vb.ger astonishing W7
  stupeo, stupēre vb to be benumbed, be astonished W7
  stupidus adj mute, stupid W7
  stuprum n.neut defilement W7
  tundo, tundere vb to beat, pound, strike W7
  tussis n.fem tussis W7
  tympanum n.neut drum W7
  typus n.masc image W7
Late Latin: antitypus adj corresponding W7
Medieval Latin: antitypus n antitype AHD
  tympanum n.neut eardrum W7
New Latin: pertussis n.fem pertussis, rough cough W7
Spanish: estudiar vb to study TLL
Old French: estudie n.fem study W7
  percer vb to pierce W7
  toeil n.masc toil, confusion W7
  toeillier vb to toil, stir, disturb W7
Anglo-French: toiller vb to toil, stir, disturb W7
  toyl n.masc toil, confusion W7
Middle French: contuser vb to bruise W7
  estud(i)e n.fem study W7
  stupéfier vb to stupefy W7
  stupide adj mute, stupid W7
French: archétype n archetype CDC
  étude n.fem study, office (room) W7
  étudier vb to study TLL
  étui n.masc small ornamental case W7
Italian: stucco n.masc stucco, plaster W7
Albanian: shtyj vb to thrust GED
Homeric Greek: Στύξ, Στυγός n Styx: the River of Hate LRC
  τυπή n blow, stroke LRC
  τύπτω vb to hit, beat, strike LRC
Greek: anti-typos adj corresponding W7
  arche-typon n.neut archetype W7
  arche-typos n.masc archetypal W7
  stypos n.masc stem W7
  tympanon n.neut drum, kettledrum W7
  tupos n print, impression AHD
Late Greek: antitupos n copy, antitype AHD
Sanskrit: tudáti vb to thrust, push GED
  tundate vb to thrust, push GED
  todás n one who incites GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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