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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: su̯ek̑s, sek̑s, ksek̑s, ksu̯ek̑s, u̯ek̑s : uk̑s   'six'

Semantic Fields: Number; Much, Many

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: seissed nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
   nbr.card six (6) EIE
Irish:  nbr.card six (6) LRC
Scots Gaelic: sia nbr.card six (6) LRC
Manx: shey nbr.card six (6) LRC
Welsh: chwech nbr.card six (6) EIE
  chweched nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Gaulish: suexos nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
English  
Old English: siex nbr.card six (6) LRC
  siexta nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
  siextig nbr.card sixty (60) LRC
Middle English: sexte n sext W7
  six nbr.card six (6) W7
  sixty nbr.card sixty (60) W7
English: hex(a)- pfx six AHD
  hexad n group/series of six AHD/W7
  hexagon n polygon with six sides AHD
  Hexateuch prop.n first 6 books of Hebrew Bible, lit. six containers LRC
  semester n six months AHD/W7
  senary adj re: six, compounded of six parts/things AHD/W7
  sestet n poem/stanza of six lines AHD/W7
  sestina n lyrical form: six-line stanzas AHD/W7
  sex- pfx six AHD/W7
  sexagenary adj by sixties AHD
  sexcentenary adj re: 600 AHD
  sexennial adj (happening) every 6 years AHD
  sext n fourth canonical hour AHD/W7
  sextant n instrument for measuring celestial body altitude AHD/W7
  sextile n aspect of heavenly bodies 60 degrees apart AHD/W7
  siesta n afternoon nap/rest AHD/W7
  Sistine adj re: pope named Sixtus LRC
  six nbr.card 6 AHD/W7
  sixth nbr.ord 6th AHD/W7
  sixty nbr.card 60 AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old High German: sehs nbr.card six W7
  seh(s)to nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
German: sechs nbr.card six (6) LRC
  sechste nbr.ord sixth (6th) LRC
  sechzig nbr.card sixty (60) LRC
  Semester n.neut semester W7
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: sex nbr.card six (6) EIE
  sētti nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
E-Germanic  
Gothic: saíhs nbr.card six LRC
  saíhsta nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Crimean Gothic: seis nbr.card six (6) CGo
Italic  
Umbrian: sest- pfx.card sixth (6th) EIE
Latin: semestris adj half-yearly W7
  senarius adj consisting of six each W7
  seni adv six each W7
  sex nbr.card six W7
  sexta n.fem sixth hour of the day W7
  sextans, sextantis n.masc sixth part W7/CLD
  Sextīlis prop.n sixth month (in old Roman calendar) LRC
  sextīlis adj re: sixth month W7
  sextus nbr.ord sixth W7
Late Latin: hexas, hexadis n.fem group of six W7
  sexta n.fem sixth hour of day W7
New Latin: sextans, sextantis n.masc 1/6 of circle W7
  sixtinus adj re: pope named Sixtus W7
  Sixtus prop.n.masc name of some popes W7
Spanish: siesta n.fem nap W7
Italian: sestetto n.masc sextet W7
  sestina n.fem six-line stanza W7
  sesto nbr.ord sixth W7
  sistino adj Sistine (from Pope Sixtus IV) W7
Baltic  
Old Prussian: us(ch)ts nbr.card sixth (6th) EIE
Lithuanian: šeši nbr.card six (6) EIE
  šẽštas nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Latvian: seši nbr.card six (6) EIE
  sęstais nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: šestĭ nbr.card six (6) EIE
Bulgarian: šéstĭ nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Albanian  
Albanian: gjashtë nbr.card six (6) EIE
  gjashtë(t) nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: ʽέξ nbr.card six LRC
  ἑξήκοντα nbr.card sixty LRC
Greek: ʽέκτος nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
  hexas n.fem group of six W7
Armenian  
Armenian: vec nbr.card six (6) EIE
  vec'erord nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Iranian  
Avestan: xštva- nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
  xšvaš nbr.card six (6) EIE
Indic  
Sanskrit: ṣáṣ nbr.card six (6) EIE
  ṣaṣṭhá- nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: ṣkas nbr.card six (6) EIE
  ṣkaste nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE
Tocharian A: ṣäk nbr.card six (6) EIE
  ṣkäṣt nbr.ord sixth (6th) EIE

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
card=cardinal
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
nbr=number
neut=neuter (gender)
ord=ordinal
pfx=prefix
prop=proper

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
EIE=J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, eds. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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