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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. su̯el-   'to burn, smolder, swelter'

Semantic Field: to Burn, Scorch


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: swelan vb to burn W7
  sweltan, swealt, swulton, swolten vb.str to die W7
Middle English: swale n swale W7
  swelten vb to die, be overcome by heat W7
  sweltren vb.freq to swelter W7
English: sulter vb to swelter AHD/W7
  sultry adj sweltering, very hot/humid AHD/W7
  swale n low-lying stretch of (marshy) land AHD/W7
  swelter vb to sweat, faint/suffer from heat AHD/W7
  sweltry adj sultry, extremely hot IEW
Old Saxon: sweltan vb to die ASD
Old High German: swelzan vb to burn up W7
Old Norse: svalr adj cool, cold LRC
Icelandic: svelta vb to die ASD
Danish: sulte vb to starve ASD
  sulten adj hungry ASD
Gothic: swiltan vb to die ASD
Crimean Gothic: *schwalþ/schuualth n death CGo


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
freq=frequentative (aspect)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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