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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. tel-, telə-, tlē(i)-, tlā-   'to bear, carry; weigh, lift up'

Semantic Fields: to Bear, Carry; to Lift, Raise


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: tláith adj tender, weak RPN
  tlenaim vb to take away, carry off RPN
  tulach n hill RPN
Welsh: tlawd adj poor RPN
Old English: talente n.fem talent W7
  þolian, þolade, þolad vb.wk.II to thole, hold out LRC
Middle English: extollen vb to extol W7
  prelat n prelate W7
  superlatif adj superlative W7
  talent n talent (weight) W7
  tholen vb to thole W7
  toll n toll W7
English: ablate vb to remove (e.g. by cutting/melting/eroding) W7
  ablation n removal (e.g. by surgery) AHD/W7
  ablative adj (grammatical case) re: cause/source etc. AHD/W7
  allative adj (grammatical case) re: motion toward AHD
  collate vb to examine critically, bring together and compare AHD/CDC
  dilatory adj tending/intended to cause delay AHD/W7
  elate vb.trans to fill with joy/pride AHD/W7
  elative adj comparative/superlative, re: superiority AHD
  extol vb.trans to glorify, praise highly AHD/W7
  illation n inference, conclusion, act of inferring AHD/W7
  illative adj re: illation AHD
  legislator n one who makes laws for political unit AHD/W7
  oblate adj flattened/depressed at poles AHD/W7
  philately n study/collection of postage stamps AHD/W7
  prelate n ecclesiastic of superior rank AHD/W7
  prolate adj extended AHD/W7
  relate vb to tell, give account AHD/W7
  retaliate vb to repay (e.g. injury) in kind AHD/W7
  sublate vb.trans to deny, negate AHD/W7
  superlative adj re: grammatical comparison denoting extreme/unsurpassed level/extent AHD/W7
  talent n ancient unit of weight AHD/W7
  talion n punishment identical to offense AHD
  tantalize vb to tease/torment by frustrating induced expectation AHD/CDC
  telamon n male figure used as supporting column/pilaster AHD/W7
  thole vb to bear, suffer, endure W7
  tola n unit of weight (India) AHD/W7
  tolerate vb.trans to endure/resist without grave/lasting injury AHD/W7
  toll n tax/fee paid for liberty/privilege AHD/W7
  translate vb to carry, transfer; transform, change from one form/state/appearance/place to another AHD/W7
Old Frisian: tholia vb to thole ASD
Old Saxon: tholian/tholōn vb to thole, hold out ASD
Old Low German: tholōn vb to thole; check, allow, support ASD
Old High German: dolēn/dolōn vb to thole; allow, support ASD
  talenta n.fem.str talent ASD
Old Norse: tollr n toll W7
Old Icelandic: þola vb to thole RPN
Icelandic: þola vb to thole ASD
Gothic: þulan vb.wk.III to thole, tolerate LRC
Old Latin: tulō vb to bear, carry RPN
Latin: ablātivus adj ablative AHD
  ablātus vb.ptc ablated, carried away AHD
  elatus vb.ptc elevated, carried out W7
  extollo, extollere vb to exalt, lift out W7
  illatio n.fem action of bringing in W7
  illatus vb.ptc brought in W7
  lator n.masc proposer W7
  lātus vb.supp.ptc borne, carried LRC
  praelatus vb.supp.ptc preferred, put before W7
  prolatus vb.supp.ptc brought forward W7
  relatus vb.supp.ptc brought back W7
  sublatus vb.supp.ptc taken away, lifted up W7
  superlatus vb.supp.ptc raised high W7
  talentum n.neut unit of weight/money W7
  Telamon prop.n.masc Telamon W7
  (te)tulī vb.pret bore, carried LRC
  toleratus vb.ptc tolerated W7
  tolerō, tolerāre vb to bear, endure, sustain RPN
  tollō, tollere, tulī, lātum vb to raise, lift up, carry away RPN
  translatus vb.supp.ptc translated, carried across W7
Vulgar Latin: tolonium n.neut custom-house W7
Late Latin: dilatorius adj causing delay W7
  illatio, illationis n.fem act of inferring W7
  retaliatus vb.ptc repaid, retaliated W7
  retalio, retaliāre vb to repay W7
  superlativus adj superlative W7
  talio n.masc legal retaliation W7
  telonium n.neut custom-house W7
Medieval Latin: praelatus n.masc one receiving preference W7
New Latin: oblātus vb.supp.ptc oblate W7
  prolātus vb.supp.ptc prolate W7
Old French: prelat n.masc prelate W7
Middle French: superlatif adj superlative W7
French: philatélie n.fem philately W7
Greek: ἀνατολή n.fem east LRC
  ἀτέλεια n.fem tax exemption LRC
  ἀτελής adj free from tax/tribute LRC
  τάλαντον n.neut scale, balance, unit of weight/money RPN
  τελᾰμών n.masc bearer, supporter; carrying-strap LS
  τελέω vb to fulfill, complete, execute LRC
  τέλος n.neut tax; end, completion, fulfillment LRC
  τελώνης n.masc tax/toll-collector LRC
  τελώνιον n.neut toll/custom-house LRC
  τλήμων adj patient, enduring, suffering LRC
  τλη̃ναι vb to bear, endure, suffer RPN
  τόλμᾰ n.fem courage, boldness LRC
  τύλη n.fem callous lump RPN
  τύλος n.masc knob, knot, callus RPN
Kashmiri: tul n weight, balance RPN
  tulun vb to lift RPN
Sanskrit: tulayati vb to raise, lift up, weigh RPN
  tulā́ n scale, balance RPN
  tulā n weight W7
Bengali: tulā vb to raise, weigh RPN
  tul n scale, balance RPN
Hindi: tolā n unit of weight (India) W7
Tocharian B: täl- vb to lift, raise; acquire RPN
  talle n load, burden RPN
Tocharian A: täl- vb to lift, raise RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pret=preterite (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
supp=suppletive (form)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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