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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. ter-   'through, over, etc.'

Semantic Field: Path


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: nosþyr(e)l/nosterl n.neut nostril W7/ASD
  þurh adv/prep through, by (means of) LRC
  ðurhwadan, ðurhwōd, ðurhwōdon, ðurhwaden vb.str.VI to pierce, penetrate LRC
  þuruh adv/prep thorough W7
  þyrel n.neut hole, orifice, aperture W7
  þyr(e)lian vb to pierce, perforate, make hole through W7
Middle English: nosethirl n nostril W7
  thirlen vb to pierce W7
  thorow adv/prep thorough W7
  thrillen vb to pierce W7
  through prep through W7
  thruh prep through W7
  thurh prep through W7
  traunsom n transom W7
  trenche n trench, track cut through woods W7
  tronke n trunk W7
English: avatar n incarnation of Hindu deity AHD/W7
  caravansary n caravan stop/inn AHD/W7
  lamasery n monastery of lamas AHD/W7
  nostril n external naris AHD/W7
  seraglio n large harem AHD
  serai n inn, khan, choltry, caravansary; seraglio AHD/CDC
  thorough arch.adv/prep through AHD/W7
  thrill vb to cause to experience sudden sharp excitement AHD/W7
  through prep in one side/point and out another AHD/W7
  trans- pfx across, beyond, on/to other side of AHD/W7
  transact vb to carry out, perform AHD/W7
  transcend vb to exceed, go beyond, rise above AHD/W7
  transect vb to cut transversely AHD/W7
  transmute vb to convert, change/alter in form/nature/appearance AHD/W7
  transom n crosspiece, transverse piece in structure AHD/W7
  trench n ditch, long cut in ground AHD/W7
  truculent adj cruel, fierce, savage AHD/W7
  truncate vb.trans to lop, shorten by cutting off AHD/W7
  trunk n bole, main stem of tree AHD/W7
Old Frisian: nosterle n nostril ASD
  thruch prep through ASD
Dutch: door prep through TLL
Old Saxon: thurh/thuru prep through ASD
Old Low German: thurh/thuru(o) prep through ASD
Old High German: durh/duruh/durah/dureh prep through W7/ASD
  durh-watan vb to pass through ASD
German: durch prep through LRC
Gothic: þairh prep through, by (means of), on account of ASD
Latin: tra(ns)- pfx through, across, beyond, so as to change W7
  trans prep across, beyond W7
  transigo, transigere, transegi, transactus vb to transact, complete, drive through W7
  transtrum n.neut transom, traverse beam W7
  truculentus adj mean, grumpy, truculent W7
  truncatus vb.ptc cut off W7
  truncō, truncāre vb to maim, truncate W7
  truncus n.masc trunk, torso W7
  trux, trucis adj fierce W7
Spanish: tras- pfx trans- W7
Middle French: trenche n.fem act of cutting W7
  trenchier vb to cut W7
  tronc n.masc trunk W7
French: lamaserie n.fem lamasery W7
Italian: serraglio n seraglio, enclosure W7
  tra prep between, among TLL
Persian: kārwānsarāī n caravansary W7
  sarāī n palace, serai: inn W7
Sanskrit: avatarati vb to descend W7
  avatāra n descent W7
  tarati/tirati vb to cross over W7/AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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