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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. to-, tā-, ti̯o-   'that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)'

Semantic Field: Human Being


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lǣs conj lest W7
  ðā adv/conj then, when LRC
  ðænne adv then W7
  ðǣr adv then, there, where GED
  ðæs art.def the W7
  ðæt adv/conj that W7/ASD
  ðæt that, it RPN/ASD
  ðanon adv thence W7
  ðāra adv there GED
  ðās pron those W7
  ðe adv/conj/pron.rel that, who, which W7/ASD
  ðe that, he W7
  ðēah adv nevertheless W7
  ðes n this W7
  þider adv thither W7
  ðis adj/pron.neut this W7
  ðonne adv then W7
Middle English: both(e)/boþ(e)/bath adj/pron both W7/MEV
  leste conj lest W7
  natheless adv natheless, nevertheless, notwithstanding W7
  than adv/conj then, than W7
  thanne(s) adv thence W7
  that art/pron that W7
  the adv/art.def the W7
  their adj/pron their W7
  then adv/conj then, than W7
  there adv there W7
  they pron they W7
  this art/pron this W7
  thither adv thither W7
  those art/pron these W7
  though adv though W7
  thus adv thus W7
English: both adj/pron two, one and another AHD/W7
  decoy n pond into which fowl are lured AHD/W7
  lest conj for fear that AHD/W7
  natheless adv notwithstanding, nevertheless AHD/W7
  tales people filling jury vacancies AHD/CDC
  talesman n person filling jury vacancy W7
  tandem n 2-seated carriage pulled by horses harnessed one in front of another AHD/W7
  tantamount adj equivalent in value/effect/significance AHD/W7
  than conj second member (point of departure in comparison expressing inequality) AHD/W7
  that, those thing/person/idea indicated/mentioned/understood from (remote) situation AHD/W7
  that adv to such an extent W7
  that conj [function word introducing clause] W7
  the adv than before/otherwise AHD/W7
  the art.def re: someone/something clearly understood/previously mentioned AHD/W7
  their adj re: them(selves) as possessors AHD/W7
  then adv at that time AHD/W7
  thence adv from that place AHD/W7
  there adv in/at that place AHD/W7
  they, them those ones AHD/W7
  this, these thing/person/idea near/present in time/place/thought AHD/W7
  thither adv there, to that place AHD/W7
  though adv however, nevertheless AHD/W7
  thus adv in this/that way/manner AHD/W7
Old Frisian: ðer adv there, then GED
  thā adv/conj then, when ASD
  thāch adv/conj yet, still, however, nevertheless ASD
  thēr adv there, where ASD
  thet conj that ASD
  this/thisse dem.pron.masc this ASD
  thit/this dem.pron.neut this ASD
  thius/thisse dem.pron.fem this ASD
Middle Dutch: dus adv thus W7
Dutch: dan conj than TLL
  dat conj that TLL
  de art.def.masc the W7
  deze this LRC
  indien conj if TLL
Old Saxon: ðar adv there, then GED
  thār adv there, where ASD
  that conj that ASD
  the adv/conj/pron.rel that, who, which ASD
  thit dem.pron.neut this ASD
  thius dem.pron.fem this ASD
  thō/thuo adv/conj then, when ASD
  thōh adv/conj yet, still, however, nevertheless ASD
Old Low German: thār adv there, where ASD
Old High German: bēde/beide adj/pron both W7/GED
  dār/dāra adv there, where W7/ASD
  dara adv to there GED
  daz conj that ASD
  daz that W7
  denne adv/conj then, than W7
  dese, desiu, diz this W7/ASD
   adv/conj then, when ASD
  doh adv though W7
  doh adv/conj yet, still, however, nevertheless ASD
  ðanan adv thence W7
  ðar adv there, then GED
German: beide adj/pron both LRC
  damit conj in order that TLL
  dass conj that TLL
  der, die, das art.def the LRC
  dieser, diese, dies(es) this LRC
  dort adv there LRC
Old Norse: bāðir adj/pron both GED
  ðar adv there, in that place LRC
  ðaþra adj there W7
  ðá adv then LRC
  ðeir they W7
  ðeirra their W7
  ðō adv (and) yet, however, nevertheless W7
Old Icelandic: ðar adv there, then GED
  ðat dem.pron that, it RPN
Icelandic: ðat conj that ASD
  það it TLL
  þau they TLL
  þá adv/conj then, when ASD
  þeim them TLL
  þeirra their TLL
  þess its TLL
  þessi, þessi, þetta dem.pron this ASD
  þó adv/conj yet, still, however, nevertheless ASD
  þvi (to) it TLL
Danish: de they TLL
  dem (to) them TLL
  den it TLL
  dens its TLL
  deres their TLL
  det it TLL
Swedish: de they TLL
  dem (to) them TLL
  den it TLL
  deras their TLL
  dess its TLL
  dessa these TLL
  det it TLL
  där adv there TLL
Gothic: ðar adv there LRC
  ðata that, this, the LRC
  ðaþrō adv thence LRC
  ðei conj as, that, so that LRC
  þauh adv/conj yet, still, however, nevertheless ASD
Crimean Gothic: *þe/the art.def the CGo
  *þo/tho art.def the CGo
Latin: istud dem.pron.neut this, that W7
  tālis adj such, suchlike, of such kind ELD
  tam adv so W7
  tamen conj but, nevertheless LRC
  tamquam adv just as, as if LRC
  tandem adv finally; at one, thus, anyways LRC
  tantus, tanta, tantum adj such, only LRC
  tot adj so much, so many LRC
  tum adv then LRC
Portuguese: tanto conj as TLL
Spanish: tan conj as TLL
Lithuanian: čià adv here LRC
  čionaĩ adv here LRC
  tàs, tà dem.pron this, that LRC
Latvian: tas, tā dem.pron that LRC
Old Church Slavonic: tamo adv there, to that place, thither LRC
  to conj but, then, therefore LRC
   dem.pron that, that one LRC
Albanian: tani adv now IEW
   adv/conj where IEW
Greek: τό the, this, that LRC
Hieroglyphic Luwian: tas this RPN
Hittite: ta conn [sentence connective] RPN
Sanskrit: tád this, that RPN
  tár-hi adv then GED
Tocharian B: te dem.pron this one, it RPN
Tocharian A: täm this RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
acc=accusative (case)
comm=common (gender)
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
obj=objective (case)
pl=plural (number)
poss=possessive (case)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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