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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: trei-   'three, trio'

Semantic Fields: Three; Group of Three

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: tri(ū) nbr.card three (3) EIE
Irish: trí nbr.card three (3) LRC
Scots Gaelic: trì nbr.card three (3) LRC
Manx: tree nbr.card three (3) LRC
Welsh: tri nbr.card three (3) EIE
  trydydd nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
English  
Old English: þirdda/þridda nbr.ord third (3rd) W7
  þridding n.fem doing something for 3rd time W7
  þrīe, þrēo, þrēo nbr.card three (3) LRC
  þri-feald adj threefold ASD
  þriga adv thrice W7
  þri-milce n.masc May, lit. three-milkings (month) ASD
  þrītig/þrittig nbr.card thirty (30) ASD
Middle English: detesten vb to detest W7
  protesten vb to protest W7
  riding n riding W7
  terce nbr.ord tierce W7
  tercian adj tertian W7
  testament n testament W7
  testicule n testicle W7
  testifien vb to testify W7
  testimony n testimony W7
  thirde/thridde nbr.ord third (3rd) W7
  three nbr.card three (3) W7
  thrie(s) adv thrice W7
  thritty nbr.card thirty (30) W7
  tierce nbr.ord tierce W7
  treis n trey W7
  treye n trey W7
  tri- pfx tri- W7
  tribe n tribe W7
  trine adj trine W7
English: attest vb to affirm as true/genuine AHD/W7
  contest vb to make subject of dispute/contention/litigation AHD/W7
  detest vb.trans to loathe, abhor, dislike intensely AHD/W7
  obtest vb to beseech, supplicate AHD/W7
  protest vb to avow, make solemn declaration/affirmation of AHD/W7
  riding n administrative jurisdiction in Yorkshire, England AHD/W7
  sesterce n ancient Roman coin: 1/4 denarius AHD/W7
  tercel n male hawk/falcon AHD
  tern n type of sea gull AHD/W7
  terpolymer n polymer of 3 distinct monomers AHD
  tertian adj recurring at ca. 3-day intervals AHD/W7
  tertiary adj of 3d rank/value/importance AHD/W7
  tertiary n member of of monastic 3rd order AHD/W7
  testament n covenant between God and man AHD/W7
  testicle n testis AHD/W7
  testify vb to bear witness, make statement based on personal belief/knowledge AHD/W7
  testimony n (ark containing) tablets inscribed with Mosaic law AHD/W7
  testis n male reproductive gland AHD/W7
  third nbr.ord 3rd (in place/time) AHD/W7
  thirty nbr.card 30 AHD/W7
  three nbr.card 3 AHD/W7
  threefold adj triple, 3 times the number/quantity W7
  thrice adv three times AHD/W7
  Thrihyrne prop.n Helm's Deep mountain in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Thrimidge/Thrimi(l)ch prop.n Shire calendar's May in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  tierce nbr.ord third (3rd) AHD/W7
  trey n side of die/domino with 3 spots AHD/W7
  tri- pfx three AHD/W7
  triad n trinity, group/union of three AHD/W7
  tribe n social group comprising relatives/adoptees/slaves AHD/W7
  triceratops n herbivorous dinosaur of Cretaceous Period AHD
  trichotomy n division into 3 parts/classes/elements AHD/W7
  tricrotic adj re: triple beat in arterial pulse AHD/W7
  tricrotism n having 3 pulse beats per heartbeat AHD
  tridactyl adj having 3 fingers/toes AHD/W7
  trigeminus n main facial sensory nerve AHD
  triglyph n 3-grooved tablet in Doric frieze AHD/W7
  trillium n lily with erect stem bearing 3 leaves AHD/W7
  trimer n three identical molecules combined AHD
  Trimurti prop.n triad of gods: Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva (Hinduism) LRC
  trine adj triple, threefold AHD/W7
  trinity n triad, three in one AHD/W7
  trio n group of three AHD/W7
  tripedal adj having 3 feet AHD
  triple adj having 3 units/members W7
  triplex adj triple, threefold AHD/W7
  triquetrous adj triangular, having three acute angles AHD/W7
  triquetrum n wedge-shaped carpal bone AHD
  triskaidekaphobia n abnormal fear of number 13 AHD
  trisoctahedron n regular solid with 24 congruent faces AHD/W7
  tritium n radioactive hydrogen isotope with 3 times ordinary mass AHD/W7
  tritone n musical interval: three whole steps AHD/W7
  troika n Russian vehicle pulled by 3 horses abreast AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: thrē, thria, thriu nbr.card three (3) ASD
  thredda nbr.ord third (3rd) ASD
  thria/thriia adv thrice W7/ASD
  thrītich nbr.card thirty (30) ASD
Dutch: drie nbr.card three (3) LRC
Old Saxon: thriddio nbr.ord third (3rd) ASD
  thrie/threa nbr.card three (3) ASD
  thriio/thriwo adv thrice ASD
  thrītig nbr.card thirty (30) ASD
Old Low German: thrie nbr.card three (3) ASD
  thrīo adv thrice ASD
Old High German: drī, drīo, driu nbr.card three (3) W7/ASD
  dritt(i)o nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
  drīzug nbr.card thirty (30) ASD
Middle High German: drīes adv thrice EIE
German: drei nbr.card three (3) LRC
  dreimal adv thrice LRC
  dritte nbr.ord third (3rd) LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: þriði nbr.ord third (3rd) W7
  þriðjungr n third part W7
  þrír, þrjár, þrjú nbr.card three (3) LRC
Icelandic: þriþi nbr.ord third (3rd) ASD
  þrír, þrjár, þrjú nbr.card three (3) ASD
Danish: terne n tern, sea-swallow W7/DEO
  tre nbr.card three (3) LRC
Swedish: tre nbr.card three (3) LRC
E-Germanic  
Gothic: þreis, þreis, þrija nbr.card three (3) LRC
  þridja nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
Crimean Gothic: *treiþien/treithyen nbr.card thirty (30), lit. third ten CGo
  tria nbr.card three (3) CGo
  *þiinetria/thune-tria nbr.card thirteen (10 + 3) CGo/GED
Italic  
Umbrian: terti(u) nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
Latin: attestor, attestari vb.dep to prove, confirm, attest W7
  contestor, contestari vb.dep to call as witness W7
  destestor, detestari vb.dep to curse while calling on deity as witness W7
  obtestor, obtestari vb.dep to beseech, call to witness W7
  protestor, protestari vb.dep to witness before jury W7
  sestertius adj two and a half times as great W7
  ter adv thrice LRC
  tertianus adj of the third W7
  tertiarius adj of a third W7
  tertius nbr.ord third (3rd) W7
  testamentum n.neut will, covenant W7
  testiculus n.masc testicle W7
  testificor, testificari vb.dep to testify W7
  testimonium n.neut evidence, witness W7
  testis n.masc witness: 3rd party to transaction W7
  testor, testari vb.dep to bear witness, give evidence W7
  trēs nbr.card three (3) W7
  tri- pfx three W7
  triad- pfx group of three W7
  trias n.fem triad W7
  tribus n.fem tribe, division of (Roman) people W7
  triglyphus n.masc triglyph W7
  trini adv three each W7
  trinus adj of three W7
  triplex adj threefold W7
Late Latin: testamentum n.neut covenant with God, holy scripture W7
  testimonium n.neut testimony, Decalogue W7
Medieval Latin: tertiarius adj of a third W7
New Latin: trillium n.neut genus of herbs W7
  tritium n.neut radioactive hydrogen isotope W7
Portuguese: attestar vb to attest CDC
Spanish: atestar vb to attest CDC
Old French: atester vb to attest CDC
Middle French: attester vb to attest W7
  contester vb to contest W7
  obtester vb to obtest W7
  protester vb to protest W7
  terz nbr.ord third (3rd) W7
  tierce nbr.ord third (3rd) W7
  treie nbr three (3) W7
  treis nbr three (3) W7
  trin adj of three W7
French: attester vb to attest CDC
  trio n.masc trio W7
  trois nbr.card three (3) W7
Italian: attestare vb to attest CDC
  tri- pfx three W7
  trio n.masc trio, set of three W7
Baltic  
Old Prussian: tīrts/tirts nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
  tris nbr.card three (3) EIE
Lithuanian: trẽčias, trečià nbr.ord third (3rd) LRC
  trỹs nbr.card three (3) EIE
Latvian: trešaĩs nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
  trîs nbr.card three (3) EIE
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: tretijĭ, treti nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
  trьe, tri, tri nbr.card three (3) LRC
Russian: trétij nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
  troe nbr.card three (3) W7
Albanian  
Albanian: tre nbr.card three (3) EIE
  tretë nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
Hellenic  
Mycenaean: *tri- nbr.card three (3) EIE
  ti-ri-po n tripod EIE
Homeric Greek: τρει̃ς, τριάς, τρία nbr.card three (3) LRC
  τριάκοντα nbr.card thirty (30) LRC
  τρίτατος nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
Greek: τρῐ- pfx three, thrice LS
  τρί-γλῠφος adj triglyphic, lit. thrice-cloven LS
  τρῐ-δακτῠλος adj tridactyl LS
  τρίς adv thrice LS
  τρίτος nbr.ord third (3rd) LRC
Anatolian  
Lycian: tri- nbr.card three (3) EIE
  tri- nbr.card three (3) LRC
Hittite: teri- nbr.card three (3) LRC
  teriyan nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
Armenian  
Armenian: erek' nbr.card three (3) LRC
Iranian  
Avestan: θrayō nbr.card three (3) EIE
  θriš adv thrice EIE
  θritya- nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
Indic  
Sanskrit: tráyas, trī́ nbr.card three (3) EIE
  tritá/tr̊tíya- nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
  trimūrti adj having three forms, re: Trimurti W7
  triṣ/triḥ adv thrice EIE
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: trai, tarya nbr.card three (3) EIE
  trite nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE
Tocharian A: tre nbr.card three (3) EIE
  trit nbr.ord third (3rd) EIE

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
card=cardinal
dep=deponent
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
nbr=number
neut=neuter (gender)
ord=ordinal
pfx=prefix
prop=proper
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
DEO=Hermann Vinterberg and C.A. Bodelsen: Dansk-Engelsk Ordbog (1966)
EIE=J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, eds. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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