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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: tū̆   'thou, you'

Semantic Field: Human Being

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: taí pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine RPN
   pron.2.sg.nom thou RPN
Scots Gaelic: tu pron.2.sg.nom/acc/dat you TLL
English  
Old English: ðīn pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine W7/ASD
  ðū pron.2.sg.nom thou W7
Middle English: thin pron.2.sg.poss thine W7
  thou pron.2.sg thou W7
  thy pron.2.sg.poss thy W7
English: thee pron.2.sg.obj you LRC
  thine pron.2.sg.poss your(s) AHD/W7
  thou pron.2.sg.nom you AHD/W7
  thy pron.2.sg.poss your, re: you/yourself as possessor AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: thīn pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine ASD
  thu pron.2.sg.nom thou ASD
Old Saxon: thu pron.2.sg.nom thou ASD
Old Low German: thīn pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine ASD
Old High German: dīn pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine ASD
   pron.2.sg.nom thou W7
German: dein pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine LRC
  dich pron.2.sg.acc thee TLL
  dir pron.2.sg.dat (to) thee TLL
  du pron.2.sg.nom thou LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: þú pron.2.sg.nom thou LRC
Icelandic: þið pron.2.du you two TLL
  þik pron.2.sg.acc thee TLL
  þinn pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine ASD
  þjér pron.2.pl you TLL
  þú pron.2.sg.nom thou ASD
Danish: dig pron.2.sg.dat/acc (to) thee TLL
  din pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine TLL
  du pron.2.sg.nom thou TLL
Swedish: dej pron.2.sg.dat/acc.colq (to) thee TLL
  dig pron.2.sg.dat/acc (to) thee TLL
  din pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine TLL
  du pron.2.sg.nom thou TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: þeina pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine RPN
  þeins pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine ASD
  þu pron.2.sg.nom thou LRC
  þuk pron.2.sg.acc thee RPN
  þus pron.2.sg.dat (to) thee RPN
Crimean Gothic: *þo/tzo pron.2.sg you CGo
Italic  
Old Latin: tēd pron.2.sg you RPN
Latin:  pron.2.sg.abl you RPN
   pron.2.sg.acc thee RPN
  tibī pron.2.sg.dat (to) thee RPN
   pron.2.sg.nom thou LRC
  tuī pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine RPN
Italian: te pron.2.sg.acc/dat (to) thee TLL
  tu pron.2.sg.nom thou TLL
Baltic  
Lithuanian: táv pron.2.sg.dat (to) thee RPN
  tavę̀ pron.2.sg.acc thee RPN
  tavę̃s pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine RPN
  tavimì pron.2.sg.inst thee RPN
  tavyjè pron.2.sg.loc you RPN
   pron.2.sg.nom thou LRC
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: tvoi adj thy LRC
  tebe pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine RPN
  tebe pron.2.sg.nom thou RPN
  tebě pron.2.sg.dat/loc (to) thee RPN
  ti pron.2.sg.nom thou RPN
  tobojǫ pron.2.sg.inst you RPN
  ty pron.2.sg.nom thou LRC
   pron.2.sg.acc thee RPN
Russian: tebe pron.2.sg.dat (to) thee TLL
  tebya pron.2.sg.acc thee TLL
  ti pron.2.sg.nom thou TLL
Albanian  
Albanian: teje pron.2.sg.abl you RPN
  të/ti pron.2.sg.nom thou RPN
  ty pron.2.sg.dat/acc thee RPN
Hellenic  
Doric: τέ pron.2.sg.acc thee RPN
  τέος pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine RPN
  τοι pron.2.sg you RPN
  τοί pron.2.sg.dat (to) thee RPN
  τύ pron.2.sg.nom thou RPN
Greek: σύ pron.2.sg you LRC
Anatolian  
Luwian: ti-i pron.2.sg.nom thou RPN
Hittite: -ta enc.pron.2.sg.obl thee RPN
  -ta-aš enc.pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine RPN
  -te-it enc.pron.2.sg.inst you RPN
  -te-it enc.pron.2.sg.neut you RPN
  -ti enc.pron.2.sg.dat (to) thee RPN
  -ti-in enc.pron.2.sg.acc thee RPN
  -ti-iš enc.pron.2.sg.nom thou RPN
  tu-e-da-az pron.2.sg.abl you RPN
  tu-(e-)el pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine RPN
  tu-e-ta-za pron.2.sg you RPN
  tu-ga pron.2.sg you RPN
  tu-uk pron.2.sg.dat/acc thee RPN
  zi-ga pron.2.sg you RPN
  zi-ik pron.2.sg.nom thou RPN
Palaic: ti-i pron.2.sg.nom thou RPN
  tu-ú pron.2.sg.dat/acc thee RPN
Armenian  
Classical Armenian: du pron.2.sg thou LRC
Armenian: du pron.2.sg.nom thou RPN
Iranian  
Avestan:  pron.2.sg you RPN
  tūm pron.2.sg.nom thou RPN
Indic  
Sanskrit: táva pron.2.sg.gen thy, thine RPN
  túbhyam pron.2.sg.dat (to) thee RPN
  te enc.pron.2.sg.gen/dat you(r) RPN
  tvát pron.2.sg.abl you RPN
  tvám pron.2.sg.nom thou RPN
  tváyā pron.2.sg.inst thee RPN
  tváyi pron.2.sg.loc you RPN
  tvā enc.pron.2.sg.acc thee RPN
  tvā́m pron.2.sg.acc thee RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
2=2nd person
abl=ablative (case)
acc=accusative (case)
adj=adjective
colq=colloquial
dat=dative (case)
du=dual (number)
enc=enclitic
gen=genitive (case)
inst=instrumental (case)
loc=locative (case)
neut=neuter (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
obj=objective (case)
obl=oblique (case)
pl=plural (number)
poss=possessive (case)
pron=pronoun
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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