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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ū̆d-   'out, away, up(wards)'

Semantic Field: Far (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: abūtan adv/prep about W7/ASD
  būtan/būton/būtun adv/conj/prep outside, without, except (that) W7/ASD
  or- pfx from, without; early, original ASD
  or-eald adj very old, lit. from (of) old ASD
  or-þanc adj cunning, skillful ASD
  or-þanc n.masc/neut device, artifice, skillful work/contrivance ASD
  ūt adv out, beyond, without, outside LRC
  ūtera/ūtor adj/adv.comp outer W7/ASD
  ūter-mere n.masc open sea, lit. outer sea LRC
  ūte-weard adj outward LRC
  ūtmest adj.sup last, utmost W7/ASD
Middle English: about adv whereabouts W7
  boute prep without MEV
  but/bot(e) adv/conj but W7/MEV
  ort n ort AHD/W7
  out prep out W7
  utmest/utmost adj utmost W7
  utter adv outside W7
  uttren vb to utter W7
English: about adv around, on all sides AHD/W7
  auslander n alien, outsider, foreigner AHD
  but adv/conj only, merely; unless, except (for) AHD/W7
  carouse n large cup of liquor (emptied/consumed) AHD/W7
  hubris n arrogance, overweening pride/self-confidence AHD/W7
  hysteresis n retardation of effect of force(s) AHD/W7
  Orald prop.n a.k.a. Tom Bombadil in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  ort n scrap, morsel left after meal AHD/W7
  Orthanc prop.n Saruman's tower in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  out prep in direction away from inside/center AHD/W7
  uitlander n foreigner, lit. outlander AHD
  Ursprache prop.n parent language, esp. a proto-language (i.e. reconstructed from later evidence) LRC
  utmost adj extreme, situated at farthest/most distant point AHD/W7
  utter adj total, absolute AHD/W7
  utter vb.trans to offer for sale AHD/W7
  vigorish n charge taken on bets AHD
Old Frisian: buta prep out, against, without ASD
  ūta-werd adj outward, extreme ASD
  ūtera adj outer, outmost ASD
Frisian: buten prep out, against, without ASD
Middle Dutch: oor adv/prep out AHD
Dutch: buiten prep out, against, without ASD
  uit prep out of TLL
Afrikaans: uitlander n uitlander AHD
Old Saxon: būtan/bōtan prep out, against, without ASD
  ūt adv out, beyond ASD
Old High German: būzan adv/conj/prep without, except W7
  uralt adj very old ASD
  urdanc/urdank n.str.masc idea, invention, fabrication LRC
  ūz prep/adv out, beyond W7/ASD
  ūzero adj outer, outmost ASD
Middle High German: ūz prep out AHD
German: aus prep out LRC
  Ausländer n.masc auslander LRC
  ausländisch adj foreign, alien, exotic LRC
  ausserhalb prep outside TLL
  bauszen prep out, without, against ASD
  Garaus n.masc termination W7
  ur- pfx primitive W7
  Ursprache n.fem Ursprache W7
Old Norse: ór prep from, (out) of; with the material of LRC
  útar adv.comp farther out LRC
  úti adv outside, out at sea, unsheltered LRC
Icelandic: út adv out, beyond ASD
Danish: ud prep out of TLL
  uden prep without TLL
  udenfor prep outside TLL
Swedish: ut prep out of TLL
  utan prep without TLL
  utanför prep outside TLL
  utom prep except TLL
Gothic: us prep from, out (of) LRC
  ūt adv out, beyond ASD
  ūta adv out, without LRC
Middle French: carous adv all out, emptied W7
  carrousse adv all out, emptied W7
Latvian: uz prep on, for, upon LRC
Greek: ʽύβρις n.fem hubris, outrage, wantonness LS
  ὑστερέω vb to come late, fall short LS
  ὑστέρησις n.fem need, shortcoming, hysteresis LS
  ʽύστερον adv later LRC
  ʽύστερος adj later, subsequent LS
Sanskrit: ud prep up, out W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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