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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. u̯ā-   '(to pull) apart'

Semantic Fields: to Draw, Pull; to Tear


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: meniver n miniver W7
  varien vb to vary W7
  veir n vair W7
English: miniver n white fur worn by medieval nobles AHD/W7
  vair n bluish gray/white squirrel fur AHD/W7
  variety n different forms/types AHD/W7
  variola n viral disease marked by pustular eruption AHD/W7
  variorum n classical author's text/edition with notes by others AHD/W7
  various adj inconstant, variable AHD/W7
  varix n abnormally dilated/lengthened vein/artery/lymph vessel AHD/W7
  vary vb to make different/partial change in some attribute/characteristic AHD/W7
Latin: varietas, varietatis n.fem variety W7
  variō, variāre, variāvī, variātum vb to vary, diversify LRC
  varius, varia, varium adj various, variegated LRC
  varix, varicis n.masc varix, broken blood vessel W7
  varus adj bent, crooked W7
Late Latin: variola n.fem pox, pustule W7
New Latin: variola n.fem cowpox, smallpox W7
Old French: vair adj variegated W7
  vair n.masc vair W7
Middle French: varier vb to vary W7
  varieté n.fem variety W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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