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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯al-, u̯al-d(h)-   'to prevail, be strong'

Semantic Field: Strong, Mighty, Powerful

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: wieldan vb to wield W7
Middle English: abaten vb to abate W7
  availen vb to avail W7
  countrevailen vb to countervail W7
  equivalent adj equivalent W7
  prevailen vb to prevail W7
  vailen vb to avail W7
  valiaunt adj valiant W7
  valor n valor W7
  value n value W7
  welden vb to wield, control W7
English: ambivalence n simultaneous attraction/repulsion AHD/W7
  avail vb to serve, be of use/advantage AHD/W7
  convalesce vb.intrans to recover health/strength gradually after sickness/weakness AHD/W7
  countervail vb to compensate for AHD/W7
  equivalent adj equal in force/amount/value AHD/W7
  evaluate vb to fix/determine value AHD/W7
  invalid adj sickly, suffering from disease/disability AHD/W7
  invalid adj without force/foundation in law/fact/truth AHD/W7
  oblast n political subdivision of republic in U.S.S.R. AHD/W7
  prevail vb.intrans to triumph, gain ascendancy through strength/superiority AHD/W7
  vale n farewell, salutation of leave-taking AHD/W7
  valence n extract/preparation used in medicine AHD/OED
  valetudinarian n person of weak/sickly constitution AHD/W7
  valiant adj stouthearted, re: valor AHD/W7
  valid adj having legal force/efficacy AHD/W7
  valor n strength of mind/spirit, facing danger with firmness/bravery AHD/W7
  value n fair return in goods/money/services AHD/W7
  wield vb.trans to manage, deal with successfully AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old High German: waltan vb to rule W7
German: Ambivalenz n.fem ambivalence AHD
  walten vb to rule LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: vald n.neut power, control LRC
Italic  
Latin: convalesco, convalescere vb to grow strong W7
  invalidus adj weak W7
  praevaleo, praevalēre vb to prevail W7
  vale vb.2.sg.imp be well, fare well W7
  valens, valentis adj/vb.ptc being well/strong W7
  valentia n vigor AHD
  valeō, valēre, valuī vb to be strong, well, able LRC
  valesco, valescere vb to grow strong W7
  valetudinarius adj infirm, sickly; re: servants W7
  valetudo, valetudinis n.fem state of health, sickness W7
  validus adj strong W7
Vulgar Latin: valuta n.fem value W7
  valutus vb.ptc worthy, valued W7
Late Latin: aequivalens, aequivalentis vb.ptc equivalent W7
  aequivaleo, aequivalēre vb to have equal power W7
  valentia n.fem power, capacity W7
Medieval Latin: validus adj valid, healthy W7
  valor n.masc valor, value W7
Old French: vaillant adj valiant W7
  valoir/valer vb to be worthy W7/CDC
Middle French: contrevaloir vb to countervail W7
  equivalent adj equivalent W7
  vaillant adj valiant W7
  valide adj valid, healthy W7
  valour n.fem valor W7
French: invalide adj invalid, handicapped W7
Baltic  
Latvian: valdīt, valdu, valdīju vb to lead, rule LRC
  valdnieks n.masc governor, leader LRC
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: vlasti, vladǫ, vladeši vb to rule LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
2=2nd person
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
imp=imperative (mood)
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
ptc=participle
sg=singular (number)
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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