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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. u̯āt-, better u̯ōt-   'wood, vatic, mentally animated'

Semantic Fields: Mad, Crazy, Insane; Holy, Sacred; Passion


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: fāith n seer, poet W7
Old English: fann n.fem fan W7
  wōd adj wood W7
  Wōden prop.n.masc Woden W7
  wōþ n.fem sound, noise; song, poetry W7
Middle English: fan/van n fan, van W7
  wood adj wood W7
English: atmosphere n air, gaseous mass enveloping earth AHD/W7
  fan n winnowing device AHD/W7
  Odin prop.n supreme god (Germanic mythology) LRC
  van n winnowing device AHD/W7
  vatic adj oracular, prophetic AHD/W7
  wedeln n snow skiing style: short quick turns AHD
  Woden prop.n Odin LRC
  wood adj mad, insane, violent AHD/W7
  Wotan prop.n Woden AHD
Dutch: wan(ne) n.fem fan ASD
Middle Low German: Wōdan prop.n Woden ASD
Old High German: wanna n.fem fan ASD
  wedil n fan AHD
  wuce adj mad, rabid, insane ASD
  wuot n madness W7
  Wuotan prop.n Woden ASD
  wuoto n.masc madman, insane person ASD
Middle High German: wanne n.fem fan ASD
German: Atmosphäre n.fem atmosphere CDC
  Wanne n.fem fan ASD
  Wotan prop.n Wotan LRC
  Wut n.fem rage, anger LRC
Old Norse: Óðinn prop.n.masc Odin LRC
Icelandic: Óðinn prop.n Odin ASD
  óðr adj mad, rabid, insane ASD
Danish: atmosfære n atmosphere CDC
  Odin prop.n Odin W7
Swedish: atmosfer n atmosphere CDC
  vanna n.fem fan ASD
Gothic: wōds adj mad, rabid, insane ASD
Latin: vannus n.masc van, tool W7
  vates n.masc seer, prophet W7
New Latin: atmosphaera n.fem atmosphere W7
Portuguese: atmosphera n atmosphere CDC
Spanish: atmósfera n atmosphere CDC
Middle French: van n.masc van, winnow W7
French: atmosphère n atmosphere CDC
Italian: atmosfera n atmosphere CDC
Greek: ἀτμός n.masc steam, vapor CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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