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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯eg̑h-   'to move, drive, carry, convey'

Semantic Fields: to Move; to Drive; to Bear, Carry


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: fēn n cart, carriage LRC
Welsh: ar-wain vb to carry LRC
  cy-wain vb to drive LRC
  gwain n cart, carriage LRC
Old English: aweg adv out, away ASD
  ēar-wicga n.masc earwig W7
  wǣg n.masc wave, billow LRC
  wǣge n.fem weight; scale, balance W7
  wæg-līðend n.masc lit. wave-traveler LRC
  wæg-þel n.neut ship, lit. wave-planking LRC
  wǣn/wæg(e)n n.fem wain, wagon W7
  weg n.masc way LRC
  wegan vb to weigh, move, bring, carry W7
  wicga n.masc (kind of) insect W7
  wiht n.fem weight W7
  wōh adj bent, crooked W7
Middle English: alway(es) adv always W7
  away adv away AHD
  conveyen vb to convey W7
  convoyen vb to convoy W7
  erwigge n earwig W7
  invectif n invective W7
  vexen vb to vex W7
  voyage n voyage W7
  waggen vb to wag W7
  wain n wain W7
  -way adv.sfx -ways W7
  we adj/n wee; little bit W7
  weght n weight W7
  weyen vb to weigh W7
  wiglen vb to wiggle W7
English: advection n horizontal movement of air mass AHD/W7
  always adv invariably, at all times AHD/W7
  away adj/adv gone, absent; along, on the way AHD/W7
  convection n action/process of conveying AHD/W7
  convex adj curved/rounded like exterior of sphere/circle AHD/W7
  convey vb.trans to lead, conduct AHD/W7
  convoy vb.trans to guide, accompany AHD/W7
  deviate vb to turn aside AHD/W7
  devious adj remote, located off easiest path AHD/W7
  earwig n insect with large pair of forceps AHD/W7
  envoi n explanatory/commendatory concluding remarks AHD/W7
  envoy n foreign minister plenipotentiary AHD/W7
  evection n perturbation of moon's orbit due to sun's gravitation AHD/W7
  graywacke n coarse dark gray sandstone/fine-grained conglomerate AHD/W7
  Greenway prop.n road through Bree in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  invective adj denunciatory, re: insult/abuse AHD/W7
  inveigh vb.intrans to rail, protest/complain bitterly/vehemently AHD/W7
  invoice n bill, itemized list of goods sold AHD/W7
  Norwegian prop.n person/language of Norway LRC
  obviate vb.trans to make unnecessary, see/dispose of beforehand AHD/W7
  obvious adj opposite, being in way/in front AHD/W7
  ochlocracy n government by mob AHD/W7
  ochlophobia n abnormal fear of crowds AHD
  ogee n S-shaped molding AHD/W7
  ogive n diagonal rib/arch across Gothic vault AHD/W7
  pervious adj permeable, admitting passage AHD/W7
  previous adj preceding, going before in time/order AHD/W7
  Stonewain prop.n narrow valley in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  thalweg n line tracing lowest points in valley/river bed AHD
  trivial adj commonplace, ordinary AHD/W7
  trivium n three liberal arts: grammar, rhetoric, logic AHD/W7
  vector n quantity comprising direction and magnitude AHD/W7
  vehement adj strong, re: exertion of great force/energy AHD/W7
  vehicle n means of transport AHD/W7
  vex vb.trans to bring trouble/distress/agitation to AHD/W7
  via prep by way of AHD/W7
  viaduct n bridge (on series of narrow arches) AHD/W7
  viatical adj re: way, road, journey AHD
  vogue n leading place in acceptance/popularity AHD/W7
  voyage n journey, act/instance of traveling AHD/W7
  wag vb to stir, be in motion AHD/W7
  wagon n 4-wheeled vehicle for bulky item transport AHD/W7
  wagon-lit n (railroad) sleeping car AHD/W7
  wain n large/heavy wagon for farm use AHD/W7
  way n thoroughfare for travel/transportation AHD/W7
  waybread n bread for journey in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  wayfarer n traveler AHD
  wayfaring adj traveling AHD
  Waymeet prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  wee adj little, very small AHD/W7
  weigh vb to measure mass/weight (via scale/balance) AHD/W7
  weight n amount that thing weighs AHD/W7
  wiggle vb to jiggle, move to/fro with quick jerky/shaking motion AHD/W7
Old Frisian: wain/wein n.masc wain, wagon, carriage, vehicle ASD
  wega/weia vb to weigh, move ASD
  wei n.masc way ASD
Middle Dutch: wagen n wagon W7
Dutch: weegschaal n weighing scales TLL
  weg n way LRC
  wegen vb to weigh LRC
  wegens prep on account of TLL
Old Saxon: weg n.masc way ASD
Old Low German: reidi-wagan n.masc chariot, lit. riding-wagon ASD
  wegan vb to weigh ASD
Middle Low German: wiggelen vb to wiggle W7
Old High German: wāga n scales, weights KDW
  wāga n.fem weight, balance ASD
  wagan n.masc wagon, carriage ASD
  weg n.masc way W7/ASD
  wegan vb to weigh, move, carry ASD
Middle High German: wacken vb to totter W7
German: Waage n.fem scales, balance, weighing device TLL
  wackeln vb to wag, wiggle, totter LRC
  Wagen n.masc wagon LRC
  wägen vb.trans to weigh TLL
  Weg n.masc way, road LRC
  wegen prep on account of TLL
  wiegen vb to weigh LRC
Old Norse: vagn n wagon LRC
  vega vb to move LRC
  vegr n.masc way, road LRC
  vætt n weight W7
Icelandic: vagn n.masc wain, wagon, carriage, vehicle ASD
  vág, vágir n.fem weight; [pl.] scales, balance ASD
  vega vb to weigh, move, carry ASD
  vegr n.masc way ASD
Danish: vej n way LRC
  vægt n weight, scales TLL
Swedish: vagn n wain, wagon TLL
  våg n weighing scales TLL
  väg n way LRC
Gothic: ga-wigan vb to wag, move, shake, wiggle ASD
  un-wāhs adj bent, crooked ASD
  wigs n.str.masc way, road, journey LRC
Crimean Gothic: *waghen/vvaghen n wagon CGo
Latin: advectio, advectionis n.fem act of bringing W7
  advectus n.masc act of bringing W7
  adveho, advehere vb to bring, carry to W7
  convectus vb.ptc brought together W7
  conveho, convehere vb to move/bring together W7
  convexus adj convex, vaulted, concave W7
  devius adj devious, out of the way W7
  evectio, evectionis n.fem rising, carrying out W7
  evectus vb.ptc risen, carried out W7
  eveho, evehere vb to carry out, raise up W7
  invectivus adj insulting W7
  invectus vb.ptc carried in W7
  inveho, invehere vb to carry in W7
  obviam adv in the way W7
  obvius adj in the way W7
  pervius adj pervious, accessible W7
  praevius adj leading the way W7
  trivialis adj trivial, commonplace, found everywhere W7
  trivium n.neut crossroads W7
  vector n.masc carrier W7
  vectus vb.ptc carried W7
  vehemens, vehementis adj being impetuous W7
  vehiculum n.neut carriage, conveyance W7
  veho, vehere vb to drive, carry, convey W7
  vexo, vexare vb to vex, trouble, agitate W7
  vexus vb.ptc bent, crooked W7
  via n.fem way, road W7
  viaticum n.neut traveling money W7
  viaticus adj re: journey W7
Vulgar Latin: convio, conviāre vb to escort, accompany W7
  invio, inviare vb to send on one's way W7
Late Latin: convectio, convectionis n.fem act of bringing together W7
  deviatus vb.ptc gone astray W7
  devio, deviāre vb to go astray W7
  obviatus vb.ptc met W7
  obvio, obviāre vb to meet, withstand W7
Medieval Latin: Norwegia n.fem Norway W7
Old Spanish: bogar vb to row W7
Old French: conveier vb to escort, accompany W7
  envei n.masc message W7
  envoier vb to send on one's way W7
  voiage n.masc trip, voyage W7
Middle French: conveier vb to convey W7
  convoier vb to convoy W7
  envoi n.masc message W7
  invectif adj insulting W7
  ochlocratie n.fem ochlocracy W7
  véhément adj violent, passionate, impetuous W7
  vexer vb to vex, outrage W7
  vogue n.fem vogue W7
French: convexe adj convex W7
  envoi n.masc message, act of sending W7
  envoyé vb.past.ptc sent W7
  envoyer vb to send W7
  véhicule n.masc vehicle W7
  wagon n.masc wagon, (railroad) car W7
  wagon-lit n.masc wagon-lit W7
Old Italian: voga n.fem vogue, fashion W7
  vogare vb to row W7
Lithuanian: vāžis n cart LRC
  vèzti vb to carry, convey LRC
Old Church Slavonic: vesti vb to carry, convey LRC
  vozŭ n carriage LRC
Homeric Greek: ὀχέω vb to bear, endure; be borne LRC
  ʼόχος n carriage, chariot LRC
Greek: ὀχλοκρᾰτία n.fem ochlocracy LS
  ʼόχλος n.masc mob, crowd, throng LS
Avestan: vazaiti vb to travel LRC
  vazyam n load LRC
Sanskrit: váhati vb to travel LRC
  vahítram n ship, vehicle LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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