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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. u̯(e)id-   'to vide, see, wit, know'

Semantic Fields: to See; to Know


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: druid n druid, lit. tree-seer GED
  find adj white, clearly visible AHD
Welsh: gwyddom we know LRC
  gwyn(n) adj white AHD
Gaulish: druides adj knowing certainly GED
  druides n.masc druid, lit. tree-seer W7
Old English: ætwītan vb to reproach W7/ASD
  and-wīs adj expert, skillful ASD
  gewis(s) adj sure, certain, knowing W7/ASD
  gewītan, gewāt, gewiton, gewiten vb.str.I to go, depart LRC
  sām-wīs adj dull, simple, foolish, lit. half-wise ASD
  wīs adj wise W7
  wīsdōm n.masc wisdom W7
  wīse n.fem wise, state, condition W7
  wita n.masc sage, elder, counsellor, wise man ASD
  witan, wāt, witon, wiste vb.ptpr.I to wit, observe, be aware LRC
  wītan, wāt, witon, witen vb.str.I to go, depart W7
  wīte n.neut pain, torment, punishment W7
  wītega n.masc wizard, prophet, soothsayer W7
Middle English: advice n advice W7
  a(d)visen vb to advise AHD
  atwiten vb to reproach, upbraid W7
  avys n advice, opinion, deliberation MEV
  envie n envy W7
  evident adj evident W7
  guide n guide W7
  guise n guise W7
  idol n idol W7
  iwis adv iwis W7
  providen vb to provide W7
  prudent adj prudent W7
  purveien vb to purvey W7
  purveu n purview W7
  storie n story W7
  surveyen vb to survey W7
  vewe n view W7
  visage n visage W7
  viser n visor, mask W7
  vision n vision W7
  visiten vb to visit W7
  wis/wys adj wise W7
  wisdom n wisdom W7
  wise n wise W7
  wit n wit W7
  wite n wite W7
  witen vb to wit W7
  wot (I/he) wot(s), know(s) W7
  woten vb to wot W7
  wysard n wizard W7
English: advice n counsel, recommendation re: decision/course of conduct AHD/W7
  advise vb to counsel, give advice to AHD/W7
  Andwise prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  belvedere n structure designed to command view AHD/W7
  black-a-vised adj dark-complexioned AHD/W7
  clairvoyant adj discerning, unusually perceptive AHD/W7
  colcannon n boiled/mashed potatos/cabbage AHD
  druid n Celtic priest: seer, wizard, magician AHD/W7
  eidetic adj re: visual images with almost photographic accuracy AHD/W7
  eidolon n phantom, unsubstantial image AHD/W7
  envy n malice AHD/W7
  evident adj clear to vision/understanding AHD/W7
  guide n one who leads/directs another AHD/W7
  guidon n small flag AHD
  guise n costume, form/style of dress AHD/W7
  guy n rope/chain/rod attached as brace/guide AHD/W7
  hadal adj re: ocean below 6 km AHD/W9
  Hades prop.n god of underworld, ruler of dead (Greek mythology) LRC
  history n tale, story AHD/W7
  idea n real pattern of which physical things are imperfect representations AHD/W7
  ideo- pfx idea AHD/W7
  idocrase n vesuvianite: complex silicate mineral AHD/W7
  idol n symbol/representation of deity used as object of worship AHD/W7
  idyll n simple descriptive literary work re: peace/contentment AHD/W7
  improvise vb to extemporize, sing/recite/compose on spur of moment AHD/W7
  interview n formal consultation/evaluation AHD/W7
  invidious adj tending to cause envy/discontent/animosity AHD/W7
  iwis adv surely, certainly AHD/W7
  kaleidoscope n instrument for viewing patterns in bits of colored glass AHD/W7
  penguin n flightless aquatic bird AHD
  polyhistor n polymath AHD/W7
  previse vb.trans to foresee AHD/W7
  provide vb to take precautionary measures AHD/W7
  prudent adj wise, foresighted AHD/W7
  purvey vb.trans to supply (e.g. provisions) AHD/W7
  purview n scope/limit/purpose/body of statute AHD/W7
  review n revision AHD/W7
  revise vb.trans to review in order to correct/improve AHD/W7
  Samwise prop.n simple hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  story n tale, history AHD/W7
  supervise vb.trans to oversee, superintend AHD/W7
  survey vb to appraise, examine re: value/condition/situation AHD/W7
  twit vb.trans to rally, subject to light reproach/ridicule AHD/W7
  unwitting adj unaware, inadvertent AHD
  Veda prop.n ancient scripture written in Sanskrit (Hinduism) LRC
  vide vb to see, view AHD/W7
  view n inspection, act of seeing/examining AHD/W7
  visa n passport endorsement AHD/W7
  visage n face/countenance/appearance of person AHD/W7
  vision n something seen in dream/trance/ecstasy AHD/W7
  visit vb to go see AHD/W7
  visor n front piece of helmet AHD/W7
  vista n prospect, view through/along opening/avenue AHD/W7
  voyeur n one obtaining sexual gratification by viewing sex acts/organs AHD/W7
  wisdom n knowledge, accumulated philosophic/scientific learning AHD/W7
  Wise prop.n Eldar wizard(s) in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  wise adj sage, having wisdom AHD/W7
  wise n way, manner AHD/W7
  wiseacre n smart aleck, one making pretensions to wisdom AHD/W7
  wit n mind, memory AHD/W7
  wit vb to know, learn AHD/W7
  wite n blame, responsibility AHD/W7
  witenagemot n council of the wise AHD/W7
  witness n observer TLL
  witness vb to see, observe LRC
  wizard n sage, wise man; sorcerer W7
British English: wot vb to wit AHD/W7
Old Frisian: wīs n.fem wise, mode, fashion ASD
  wis adj wise, discreet, judicious ASD
  wīs-dō n.masc wisdom, discretion ASD
  wita vb to wit, be aware, have knowledge ASD
  wīte n.neut pain, torment, punishment ASD
Middle Dutch: wijs-segger n wizard, soothsayer W7
Dutch: gei n brail W7
Old Saxon: wis adj wise, discreet, judicious ASD
  wīsa n.fem wise, mode, fashion ASD
  wīs-dō n.masc wisdom, discretion ASD
  witan vb to wit, be aware, have knowledge ASD
  wīti n.neut torment, punishment ASD
Old High German: giwis adj sure, certain ASD
  giwisso adv surely, certainly W7
  wis adj wise, discreet, judicious ASD
  wīs(a) n.fem wise, mode, fashion W7/ASD
  wīs-tuom n.masc wisdom, discretion ASD
  wīzan vb to punish W7
  wīzi n.neut trial, torment, punishment W7/ASD
  wīz(z)ago n.masc wizard, prophet, soothsayer W7/ASD
  wizzan vb to wit, be aware, have knowledge W7/ASD
  wizzi n wisdom, knowledge W7
German: Druide n.masc druid LRC
  gewiß adj sure, certain ASD
  Wissen n.neut knowledge LRC
  wissen vb to wit LRC
Old Norse: veita, veitt vb to grant, give; help; pay, yield LRC
  vita, vissi vb to wit, understand, be aware of LRC
  víss adj wise, sure, certain LRC
  víti n.neut penalty, punishment, liability LRC
Icelandic: vita vb to wit, be aware, have knowledge ASD
  vísa n.fem wise; stanza ASD
  vís-dómr n.masc wisdom, discretion ASD
  víss adj wise, discreet, judicious ASD
  víti n.neut fine, punishment ASD
Swedish: vis adj wise TLL
  vitna vb to witness TLL
Gothic: inweitan vb.str.I to worship LRC
  weis adj wise, discreet, judicious ASD
  *witan vb.ptpr to wit, be aware, have knowledge ASD
  witan vb.wk.III to observe, keep watch LRC
Latin: evidens, evidentis adj/vb.ptc evident, obvious W7
  historia n.fem history, tale, inquiry W7
  idea n.fem Platonian ideal W7
  idyllium n.neut idyll W7
  improvisus adj unforeseen W7
  invideo, invidēre vb to envy, look askance at W7
  invidia n.fem envy, jealousy W7
  invidiosus adj envious, invidious W7
  invidus adj envious, looking with the evil eye W7
  praevisus vb.ptc foreseen, expected W7
  providens, providentis adj/vb.ptc provident, foreseeing W7
  provideo, providēre vb to provide, see ahead W7
  provisus vb.ptc foreseen W7
  prudens, prudentis adj prudent W7
  revideo, revidēre vb to see again W7
  reviso, revisere vb to look at again W7
  revisus vb.ptc looked at again W7
  videns, videntis adj/vb.ptc seeing W7
  videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum vb to see, know LRC
  visa things seen W7
  visio, visionis n.fem sight W7
  visito, visitāre vb to visit W7
  viso, visāre vb to go see W7
  visus vb.ptc seen W7
Late Latin: idolum n.neut idol W7
Medieval Latin: supervideo, supervidēre vb to supervise W7
Old French: avis n.masc advice, opinion, deliberation W7
  aviser vb to advise W7
  envie n.fem lust, envy W7
  estorie n.fem story W7
  guier vb to guide AHD
  guise n guise, manner AHD
  idole n.fem idol W7
  veeir vb to see W7
  vis n.masc face W7
  visage n.masc face W7
  visiere n.fem visor W7
  vision n.fem sight W7
  visiter vb to visit W7
  voir vb to see W7
  vue n.fem sight W7
Anglo-French: viser n.masc face W7
Middle French: entrevue n.fem interview W7
  evident adj evident, obvious W7
  guide n.masc guide W7
  guidon n guidon W7
  porveeir vb to provide W7
  prudent adj prudent W7
  revoir vb to look over W7
  revue n.fem act of looking over W7
  surveeir vb to look over W7
  veeir vb to see W7
  veue n.fem sight W7
  voir vb to see W7
  voyeur n.masc voyeur, one who sees W7
  vue n.fem sight W7
French: clairvoyant adj one who foresees W7
  hadal adj hadal W9
  improviser vb to improvise W7
  réviser vb to look at again W7
  visa n.masc visa W7
  voir vb to see W7
  voyant vb.ptc seeing, who sees W7
  voyeur n.masc one who spies on other's private life W7
Old Provençal: guidar vb to guide AHD
Italian: belvedere n.masc turret, terrace, belvedere W7/CID
  improvvisare vb to improvise W7
  improvviso adj sudden W7
  vedere vb to see W7
  vista n.fem sight, view W7
  visto vb.ptc seen W7
Old Prussian: waidimai vb to know LRC
Lithuanian: išvýsti, išvýsta, išvýdo vb to see, witness LRC
Old Church Slavonic: viděti, viždǫ, vidiši vb to see LRC
  věděti, věmь, věsi vb to see, know LRC
Homeric Greek: εʼίδος n.neut form, figure, appearance W7
  εʼίδωλον n.neut ghost, phantom W7
Greek: Αʽίδης prop.n.masc Hades LRC
  εἰδητικός adj eidetic, re: form/appearance W7
  εἰδύλλιον n.neut.dim idyll, idyllic poem W7
  *εʼίδω vb to see LRC
  ἰδέα n.fem form, nature, idea W7
  ἰδού adv behold LRC
  ἱστορία n.fem history, inquiry LRC
  ʽίστωρ/ʼίστωρ adj knowing, learned LS
  ʽίστωρ/ʼίστωρ n.masc/fem judge, witness; inquirer, historian LS
  οʼι̃δα vb to know LRC
  πολυ-ΐστωρ adj very learned LS
Classical Armenian: gitem vb to know LRC
  gtanem vb to find, get, obtain LRC
Avestan: vaēðe vb to know LRC
Sanskrit: veda n wisdom, knowledge W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
3=3rd person
I=class 1
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
ptpr=preterite-present (verb)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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