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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯eidh-, u̯idh-   'to divide, separate; widow'

Semantic Fields: to Split; Widow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wāsa n.masc wild man, forlorn/abandoned person LRC
  widuwa n.masc widower W7
  widuwe/wuduwe n.fem widow W7
  wudu-wāsa n.masc woodwose ASD
Middle English: devisen vb to devise W7
  dividen vb to divide W7
  widewe n widow W7
  woodwose n woodwose OED
English: devise vb.trans to invent, form in mind AHD/W7
  divide vb to separate into parts/groups/areas AHD/W7
  point-device adj precise, meticulous, scrupulously neat/correct AHD
  widow n woman who lost husband by death AHD/W7
  widower n man who lost wife by death AHD/W7
  woodwose n faun, satyr; wild woodsman OED
  Wose prop.n Wild Man in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: wēsa n orphan IEW
  widwe n.fem widow ASD
Dutch: wees n orphan LRC
Old Saxon: widowa n.fem widow ASD
Old High German: weiso n orphan IEW
  wituwa/witawa n.fem widow W7/ASD
  witwo n.masc widower ASD
German: Waise n.fem orphan IEW
  Witwe n.fem widow LRC
Gothic: widuwaírna n.masc orphan IEW
  widuwō n.fem widow IEW/ASD
Latin: dīvidō, dīvidere vb to divide W7
  divisus vb.ptc divided W7
  vidua n.fem widow W7
Vulgar Latin: diviso, divisāre vb to devise W7
Old French: diviser vb to divide W7
Lithuanian: vidurỹs n.masc inside, interior LRC
  vidùs n.masc inside, interior LRC
Homeric Greek: ἠίθεος n.masc bachelor, unmarried youth LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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