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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯eik̑-, u̯ik̑-, u̯oik̑o-   'house, village, settlement'

Semantic Field: House


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wīc n.neut abode; town, village W7
Middle English: baillifwik/bailiewike n bailiwick W7/CDC
  diocise n diocese W7
  parisshe n parish W7
  parochiall adj parochial W7
  vesinage n vicinage, vicinity W7
  vilain n villain W7
  vilein n villein W7
  village n village W7
  wik n abode, village W7
English: androecium n aggregate of microsporophylls in seed-plant flower AHD/W7
  autoecious adj passing all life-cycle stages on same host AHD/W7
  bailiwick n office/jurisdiction of bailiff AHD/W7
  bidonville n shanty town of improvised dwellings AHD
  diocese n territorial jurisdiction of bishop AHD/W7
  dioecious adj with male/female sex organs in different individuals AHD/W7
  dioicous adj having archegonia/antheridia on separate plants AHD/W7
  ecesis n establishment of plant/animal in new habitat AHD/W7
  ecumenical adj general/worldwide in extent/influence/application AHD/W7
  heteroecious adj passing different life-cycle stages on alternate/unrelated hosts AHD/W7
  monoecious adj hermaphroditic, with male/female sex organs in same individual AHD/W7
  nasty adj disgustingly dirty, physically repellent AHD
  parish n ecclesiastical unit committed to one pastor AHD/W7
  parochial adj re: church parish AHD/W7
  Vaisya prop.n upper-caste commercial/agricultural Hindu LRC
  vicinage n vicinity, neighboring/surrounding district AHD/W7
  vicinity n proximity, nearby area AHD/W7
  villa n country estate AHD/W7
  village n settlement larger than hamlet but smaller than town AHD/W7
  villain n villein AHD/W7
  villanelle n (chiefly French) verse form AHD/W7
  villein n free common peasant villager AHD/W7
  -wich/-wick n.sfx abode, village (e.g. Warwick) LRC
Old Frisian: wīk n.fem abode, village ASD
Old Saxon: wīk n.neut abode, village ASD
Old High German: wīch/wīh n.masc abode, village ASD
Gothic: weihs n.neut village GED
Latin: dioecesis n.fem administrative division W7
  vicinitas, vicinitatis n.fem neighbor W7
  vicinus adj neighboring W7
  vīcus, vīcī n.masc village, hamlet; row of houses LRC
  villa n.fem country estate W7
Late Latin: oecumenicus adj ecumenical W7
  parochia n.fem parish W7
  parochialis adj parochial W7
Medieval Latin: villanus adj rustic W7
New Latin: androecium n.neut androecium W7
  dioicus adj dioicous W7
  ecesis n.fem ecesis W7
Old French: village n.masc village W7
  ville n.fem farm; village W7
Middle French: diocise n.masc diocese W7
  parochial adj parochial W7
  parroche n.fem parish W7
  vesin adj neighboring W7
  vesinage n.masc neighborhood W7
  vicinité n.fem vicinity, neigborhood W7
  vilein adj re: low social class W7
French: villanelle n.fem pastoral song/dance/poetry W7
Italian: villa n.fem country-house W7
Lithuanian: viẽšpats n lord, master LRC
Old Russian: vĭsĭ n village LRC
Homeric Greek: (Ϝ)οʼι̃κος n house, home LRC
Greek: διοικεσις n.fem management, administration LS
  διοικέω vb to govern, keep house LS
  ἐνοικέω vb to inhabit, dwell in LRC
  κατοικέω vb to dwell LRC
  οʼίκαδε adv home LRC
  οἰκέω vb to dwell, inhabit LS
  οἰκησις n.fem dwelling, inhabitation LS
  οἰκία n.fem house LRC
  οἰκίον n.neut house, abode LS
  οʼίκοι adv at home LRC
  οʼι̃κόνδε adv (to his) home LRC
  οʼι̃κος n.masc house, abode LRC
  οἰκουμένη n.fem the inhabited world LRC
  οἰκουμενικός adj ecumenical W7
  πάροικος adj parochial, neighboring LS
Late Greek: παροικία n.fem parish LRC
  πάροικος adj Christian, re: parish LRC
Old Persian: vith- n house; clan; village LRC
Avestan: vaēso n house LRC
  vīs- n house; clan; village LRC
  vīsaiti vb to enter LRC
Sanskrit: víś n clan, tribe; dwelling; settlement W7
  vaiśya n upper-caste Hindu traditionally assigned to commercial/agricultural occupation W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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