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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯eip-, u̯eib-   'to turn, whip, sway, vibrate'

Semantic Field: to Turn


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mere-wīf n.neut water-witch, woman living in lake ASD
  wīf n.neut wife, woman LRC
  wīf-man(n), wīf-men n.str.masc woman, lit. wife-man W7/ASD
  wīm-man(n), wīm-men n.str.masc woman, lit. wife-man ASD
  wimpel n.masc wimple W7
  wīpian vb to wipe W7
Middle English: waif n waif W7
  weiven vb to waive W7
  w(h)ippen vb to whip W7
  wif n wife W7
  wimble n wimble W7
  wimpel n wimple W7
  wipen vb to wipe W7
  woman, women n woman W7
English: Entwives adult female Ents in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  gimp n ornamental braid/cord for trimming AHD/W7
  guimpe n blouse worn under jumper/pinafore AHD/W7
  guipure n heavy decorative lace AHD/W7
  vibrate vb to swing/move to and fro AHD/W7
  waif n unclaimed property (e.g. washed up by sea) AHD/W7
  waive vb.trans to forsake, abandon, give up AHD/W7
  waiver n intentional abandonment/relinquishment of right/claim/privilege AHD/W7
  whip vb to take/pull/jerk/move quickly/forcefully AHD/W7
  wife, wives n (married) woman W7
  wimble n auger, instrument for boring holes AHD/W7
  wimple n cloth covering worn over head/around neck/chin by women AHD/W7
  wipe vb.trans to rub/clean with something soft AHD/W7
  woman, women n adult female human being W7
British English: charwoman n woman hired to clean house/office W7
Old Frisian: wīf n.neut wife, woman ASD
Middle Dutch: wimmel n wimble W7
  wippen n to whip, sway, move up and down W7
Old Saxon: wīf n.neut wife, woman ASD
Middle Low German: wimmel n wimble W7
Old High German: wīb/wīp n.neut wife, woman W7/ASD
  wīfan vb to wind around W7
  wimpal n.masc wimple, garment ASD
German: wippen vb to whip, sway, move up and down LRC
Icelandic: vimpill n.masc hood, veil, wimple ASD
  víf n.neut wife, woman ASD
Gothic: biwáibjan vb.wk.I to wrap, clothe LRC
Latin: vibratus vb.ptc shaken, vibrated W7
  vibrō, vibrāre vb to shake, vibrate W7
Old French: guimple n wimple, garment AHD
  guiper vb to cover with silk AHD
Old North French: waif adj lost, unclaimed W7
  weyver vb to waive W7
Anglo-French: weyver vb to waive W7
  wimble n.masc wimble W7
French: guimpe n.fem nun's wimple, chemisette W7
  guipure n guipure W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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