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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. u̯eis-   'to flow (away); ooze, virus, poison'

Semantic Fields: to Flow; Mud, Mire; Sick; Sickness

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: wāse n.fem ooze ASD
  wāsend n.masc weasand IEW/ASD
  weosule/wesle n.fem weasel W7
Middle English: viscouse adj viscous W7
  wesand n weasand W7
  wesele n weasel W7
  wose n ooze W7
English: bison n large shaggy bovine mammal AHD/W7
  filovirus n thread-like RNA animal virus AHD
  ooze n mud, slime, soft deposit at bottom of water AHD/W7
  parvovirus n infective agent with DNA in icosahedral protein shell AHD
  rhabdovirus n RNA-containing plant/animal virus AHD
  virus n.arch venom, poison AHD/W7
  viscid adj sticky, having adhesive quality AHD/W7
  viscous adj gluey, viscid AHD/W7
  weasand n maw, throat, gullet, windpipe IEW/W7
  weasel n small slender carnivorous mammal AHD/W7
  wisent n aurochs, (European) bison AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: wāse n.fem ooze ASD
Dutch: wezel n weasel TLL
Old High German: weisunt n weasand W7
  wīhsila n cherry W7
  wisant/wisunt n wisent W7
  wisula/wisala n.fem weasel W7/ASD
German: Virus n.neut virus LRC
  Wiesel n.neut weasel LRC
  Wisent n.masc wisent W7
N-Germanic  
Icelandic: veisa n.fem ooze, pool of stagnant water ASD
Danish: væsel n weasel TLL
Swedish: vessla n weasel TLL
Italic  
Latin: virus n.neut slime, stench, virus: poison W7
  viscum n.neut birdlime W7
Late Latin: viscidus adj viscid, slimy W7
  viscosus adj viscous, full of birdlime W7
Baltic  
Old Prussian: wissambrs n wisent W7
Hellenic  
Greek: ἰξός n.masc mistletoe LS
  ἰός n.masc , virus: poison LS
Indic  
Sanskrit: viṣa n stench, liquid, virus: poison W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
arch=archaic
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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