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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: u̯ek-   'to voice, speak, evoke'

Semantic Field: to Speak, Talk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: advocat n advocate W7
  avouson n advowson AHD
  invoken vb to invoke W7
  provoken vb to provoke W7
  revoken vb to revoke W7
  vocacioun n vocation W7
  vocal adj vocal W7
  vochen vb to vouch W7
  voice n voice W7
  vouchen vb to vouch W7
  vowel n vowel W7
English: advocate n one who pleads another's cause AHD/W7
  advowson n right of presentation to vacant benefice AHD
  avocation n distraction, diversion AHD/W7
  convoke vb.trans to call a meeting AHD/W7
  epic adj re: long narrative poem AHD/W7
  epos n epic; disparate poems re: epic theme AHD/W7
  equivocal adj ambiguous, having multiple meanings AHD/W7
  evoke vb.trans to summon, call up/forth AHD/W7
  invoke vb.trans to petition for help/support AHD/W7
  orthoepy n customary pronunciation of language AHD/W7
  provoke vb.trans to stir, arouse AHD/W7
  revoke vb to call/bring back AHD/W7
  univocal adj having one meaning AHD/W7
  vocable n name, term AHD/W7
  vocal adj oral, uttered by voice AHD/W7
  vocation n summons/inclination to particular state/action AHD/W7
  voice n sound produced by vertebrate via lungs/larynx/syrinx AHD/W7
  voice vb.trans to utter, pronounce W7
  vouch vb to summon to court to warrant/defend title AHD/W7
  vowel n speech sound with oral breath channel unblocked/unconstricted AHD/W7
Old High German: giwahanen vb to mention W7
Latin: advocatus vb.ptc summoned W7
  advoco, advocāre vb to summon W7
  avocatio n.fem a call W7
  avocatus vb.ptc called W7
  avoco, avocāre vb to call away W7
  convoco, convocare vb to summon, invite W7
  epicus adj epic W7
  evoco, evocare vb to call, summon W7
  invoco, invocare vb to invoke, call in W7
  provoco, provocare vb to provoke, call forth W7
  revoco, revocāre vb to revoke, call back W7
  vocabulum n.neut word, term for something W7
  vocalis adj re: voice W7
  vocatio, vocationis n.fem summons W7
  vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātum vb to call, summon LRC
  vox, vocis n.fem call, voice LRC
Late Latin: aequivocus adj equivoque, ambiguous W7
  univocus adj univocal W7
New Latin: orthoepia n.fem orthoepy W7
Old French: advocat n lawyer, advocate AHD
  avoeson n advowson AHD
  vois/voiz n.fem voice W7
Middle French: advocat n.masc advocate W7
  convoquer vb to convoke W7
  invoquer vb to invoke W7
  provoquer vb to provoke W7
  révoquer vb to revoke, cancel W7
  vocable n.masc vocable W7
  vocher vb to call, summon W7
  vouel n.fem vowel W7
French: évoquer vb to evoke, recall W7
Old Prussian: wackis n noise, shouting LRC
Homeric Greek: ἐνέπω vb to tell, relate LRC
  ʼέπος n.neut song, word, speech, saying, epos LRC
Greek: ὀρθο-έπεια n.fem correctness of diction LS
Hittite: wek- vb to ask LRC
Avestan: vacah- n word LRC
Sanskrit: vákti vb to say LRC
  vácas- n word LRC
Tocharian B: wek n voice LRC
Tocharian A: wak n voice LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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