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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯ek-ti-   'whit, thing'

Semantic Field: Form, Shape (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ā-wiht/ā-(wy)ht/ā-(w)uht pron aught, lit. a whit W7/ASD
  nā-wiht/nā-(w)ht/nā-uht pron naught, lit. no whit W7/ASD
  nō-(wi)ht pron nought, lit. no whit W7/ASD
  wiht n.neut whit, wight LRC
Middle English: au(g)ht/aght/auzht pron aught W7/CDC
  naught/nought pron naught/nought W7
  not adv/pron not; nought W7
  wi(g)ht/wyght n whit, wight W7
English: aught pron anything, a whit AHD/W7
  Barrow-wight prop.n tomb-wraith in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  naught/nought pron nothing, not aught AHD/W7
  not adv negative: without, absence/reverse of AHD
  whit n bit, thing, smallest part(icle) AHD/W7
  wight n wraith, creature, living being AHD/W7
Old Frisian: ā-(w)et pron aught, lit. a whit CDC
  nā-wet pron naught, lit. no whit ASD
Dutch: iets pron aught CDC
  wicht n wight, child LRC
Old Saxon: ēo-wiht pron aught, lit. a whit CDC
  neō-wiht pron naught, lit. no whit ASD
  wiht n.masc whit, wight, demon CDC/ASD
Middle Low German: i(e)ht/iewet/iet pron aught, lit. a whit CDC
Old High German: eo-wiht/io-wiht/ie-wiht pron aught, lit. a whit CDC
  neō-wiht pron naught, lit. no whit ASD
  wiht/wihd n.neut whit, wight; nature W7/CDC/ASD
German: Wicht n.masc wight, imp, dwarf, goblin LRC
Old Norse: vættr n.fem wight, (supernatural) being LRC
Icelandic: vætta n whit CDC
  våttr/vættr n.fem whit, wight CDC/ASD
Danish: vætte n wight, elf CDC
Swedish: vätt(er) n wight, elf LRC
Gothic: waiht n.neut whit, wight CDC
  waíhts n.str.fem whit, wight LRC
Old Slavic: veštĭ n thing W7
Greek: εὑρίσκω vb to find LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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