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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. u̯el-, u̯elə-   'wool, hair; grass, wold, forest'

Semantic Fields: Wool; Hair; Grass; Woods, Forest


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: gwlan n wool LRC
  gwyllt adj wild, mad W7
Old English: weald adj mighty, powerful ASD
  wilde adj wild, untamed LRC
  wold n.str.masc wold: forest OED
  wull n.fem wool W7
West Saxon: weald n.masc weald: forest W7
Anglian: wald n.masc wold: forest ODE
Middle English: flaunneol n flannel, woolen cloth/garment W7
  laner n lanner W7
  wald/wold n wold: forest W7
  welde n weld W7
  wilde adj wild W7
  wolle n wool W7
English: flannel n soft twilled wool/worsted napped fabric AHD/W7
  lanate adj woolly, covered with fine hair/filaments AHD/W7
  lanner n falcon AHD/W7
  lanolin n wool grease AHD/W7
  lanugo n dense downy/cottony growth AHD/W7
  Thistlewool prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  ulotrichous adj having crisp/woolly hair AHD/W7
  vellus n fine bodily hair preceding puberty AHD
  vole n small rodent (related to lemmings) AHD/W7
  Walda prop.n 12th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  weald n wood, forest, woodland AHD
  weld n European mignonette (flowery herb) AHD/W7
  wild adj untamed, undomesticated, living in natural state AHD/W7
  wildebeest n gnu: large African antelope with ox-like horns AHD/W7
  Wilderland prop.n wilderness area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  wilderness n uncultivated uninhabited tract/region of land AHD/W7
  Wold prop.n Rohan plain in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  wold n wood, forest; upland plain AHD/W7
  wool n soft wavy/curly undercoat of (e.g.) sheep AHD/W7
Old Frisian: wald n.masc wold: forest ODE/ASD
  wilde adj wild ASD
Dutch: wol n wool TLL
  woud n wold: forest ODE
Afrikaans: wildebees n wildebeest, lit. wild ox W7
Old Saxon: ala-waldo/alo-waldo adj mighty, powerful ASD
  wald n.masc wold: forest ODE/ASD
Old Low German: wildi adj wild ASD
Middle Low German: wolde n weld W7
Old High German: al-walto adj mighty, powerful ASD
  wald/walt n.masc wold: forest W7/ASD
  wildi adj wild W7
  wolla n.fem wool W7/ASD
German: Wald n.masc wold: forest LRC
  wild adj wild LRC
  Wolle n.fem wool LRC
Old Norse: villr adj wild, astray LRC
  vǫllr n.masc wold, untilled field ODE
Icelandic: ull n.fem wool ASD
  villr adj wild ASD
  völlr n.masc wold: plain, field ASD
Danish: uld n wool TLL
Swedish: ull n wool TLL
  vild adj wild TLL
Gothic: wilþeis adj wild ASD
  wulla/wolla n.fem wool ASD
Latin: lāna n.fem wool W7
  lanatus adj woolen W7
  lanugo n.fem wool; cocoon W7
  vellus n.neut fleece W7
Middle French: lanier n.masc lanner W7
Lithuanian: vluna n wool LRC
Old Church Slavonic: vlasъ n.masc hair LRC
Homeric Greek: εἰλύω vb to roll, wrap, enfold LS
  οʼυ̃λος adj woolen, woolly LRC
Greek: λη̃νος n.neut wool LRC
Hittite: hulana- n wool LRC
Avestan: var̥na n wool LRC
Sanskrit: ū́rfā n wool LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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