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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 7. u̯el-, u̯elə-, u̯lē-   'to turn, wind; round, voluble'

Semantic Fields: to Turn; to Wind, Wrap; Round (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gewealc n.neut rolling, tossing LRC
  stæð-weall n.masc shore-wall LRC
  walu n.fem wale W7
  wealcan vb to roll, toss W7
  wealcian vb to roll up, muffle up W7
  weall n.masc wall, rampart LRC
  weallan vb to (cause to) well, boil, bubble W7
  wealwian vb to roll W7
  welig n.masc willow W7
  weoloc n.masc whelk, shell-fish W7
  wiella n well W7
  wile- n weel, fishtrap W2I
  wilige n.fem willy, basket W2I/ASD
  wyllan vb to wish W7
Northumbrian: welle n well W7
Middle English: avalen vb to let fall W7
  devolven vb to devolve W7
  intervalle n interval W7
  involven vb to involve, roll/wrap up W7
  revolven vb to revolve W7
  vale n vale W7
  valen vb to vail, sink, reduce W7
  valey n valley W7
  volume n volume W7
  voute n vault W7
  wal n wale, choice W7
  wale n wale, weal W7
  walet n wallet W7
  walken vb to walk W7
  walkien vb to walk W7
  wall n wall W7
  walwen vb to wallow W7
  welke n whelk W7
  welle n well W7
  wellen vb to well W7
  welteren vb to roll, toss, turn over W7
  wilghe n willow W7
  wilowe n willow W7
English: anthelmintic adj expelling/destroying parasitic intestinal worms AHD/W7
  archivolt n ornamental molding around arch AHD/W7
  circumvolve vb to roll about, (cause to) revolve AHD/CDC
  convolve vb to writhe, roll together AHD/W7
  devolve vb to roll onward/downward AHD/W7
  elecampane n coarse European composite herb AHD/W7
  elytron n anterior wing protecting posterior wing AHD/W7
  evolve vb to emit, give off AHD/W7
  helicon n large circular bass tuba AHD/W7
  helicopter n rotary-winged aircraft AHD/W7
  helix n something spiral in form AHD/W7
  helminth n worm AHD/W7
  ileus n bowel obstruction AHD/W7
  interval n pause, time between states/events AHD/W7
  inulin n tasteless white polysaccharide AHD/W7
  involucrum n surrounding sheath/envelope AHD/W7
  involve vb.trans to enfold/envelop (thus encumber) AHD/W7
  multivoltine adj producing several broods per season AHD
  mycelium n interwoven filamentous hyphae mass AHD/W7
  neurilemma n outer sheath of nerve fiber AHD/W7
  platyhelminth n soft-bodied flattened worm AHD/W7
  revolve vb to ponder, turn over in mind AHD/W7
  vail vb.trans to lower (as sign of respect/submission) AHD/W7
  vale n dale, valley AHD/W7
  vallation n rampart, earthwork wall AHD/W7
  valley n elongated depression between hills/mountains AHD/W7
  valve n leaf of folding/double door AHD/W7
  valvule n small valve/valvular structure AHD/W7
  vault n arched (masonry) structure AHD/W7
  vault vb to bound vigorously AHD/W7
  volt n horse tread/gait: turning around center while going sideways AHD/W7
  voluble adj rotating, easily rolling/turning AHD/W7
  volume n scroll AHD/W7
  volute n scroll/spiral-shaped form AHD/W7
  volutin n granular basophilic substance in microorganisms AHD/W7
  volva n membranous sac/cup in gill fungus AHD/W7
  volvox n green flagellate in spherical colony AHD/W7
  voussoir n wedge-shaped piece forming arch/vault AHD/W7
  vulva n external part of female genital organs AHD/W7
  wale n weal, welt, streak/ridge on skin AHD/W7
  walk vb to roam/wander on foot AHD/W7
  wall n long high thick rampart/enclosure AHD/W7
  wallet n bag carrying miscellaneous travel articles AHD/W7
  wallow vb.intrans to roll about in indolent/ungainly manner AHD/W7
  waltz n round dance in 3/4 time AHD/W7
  weel n slotted/wickerwork fishtrap W2I
  well n pool fed by spring, water issuing from earth AHD/W7
  well vb to pour forth, rise to surface W7
  Wellinghall prop.n Ent dwelling behind waterfall in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  wellspring n fountainhead, source of supply W7
  welter vb.intrans to toss, writhe AHD/W7
  whelk n large marine snail AHD/W7
  Whitwell prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Willow prop.n evil old Shire tree in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  willow n tree/shrub in family Salicaceae AHD/W7
  willy n large wicker basket W2I
British English: wale n choice AHD/W7
Old Frisian: wal n.masc wall ASD
  walla vb to well, spring out, bubble forth ASD
Middle Dutch: walken vb to knead, press, full W7
  welteren vb to roll W7
Dutch: vallei n valley TLL
  wilg n willow TLL
Old Saxon: wal n.masc wall ASD
  wallan vb to well, boil, burn ASD
Old High German: ge-walchen vb to thicken, condense ASD
  wala n wale, choice W7
  wallan vb to well, bubble, grow hot ASD
  walzan vb to turn, roll W7
  wella n wave W7
Middle High German: wall n wall W7
  wellen vb to (cause to) well W7
  wilge n willow W7
German: Inulin n inulin W7
  Volutin n volutin W7
  walzen vb to roll, dance W7
  Walzer n.masc waltz W7
  Welle n wave TLL
Old Norse: val n choice W7
  valr adj round W7
  völr n round stick W7
Icelandic: valka vb.wk to roll ASD
Latin: convolvo, convolvere vb to roll up/together W7
  devolvo, devolvere vb to roll down W7
  evolvo, evolvere vb to unroll W7
  ileus n.masc intestinal osbtruction W7
  intervallum n.neut interval, space between ramparts W7
  inula n.fem elecampane (an herb) W7
  involucrum n.neut involucrum W7
  involvo, involvere vb to involve, wrap/roll in W7
  revolvo, revolvere vb to revolve, roll back W7
  valgus adj bow-legged W7
  vallatus vb.ptc surrounded by walls W7
  valles/vallis n.fem valley W7
  vallum n.neut rampart W7
  vallus n.masc stake, palisade W7
  valva n.fem one battant of double door W7
  volubilis adj volubile, talkative W7
  volumen n.neut volume, roll of writing W7
  voluta n.fem volute W7
  volva/vulva n.fem covering, integument W7
  volvō, volvere, volvī, volūtum vb to roll, undergo, turn around LRC
  volvox adj rolling W7
Vulgar Latin: volsorium n.neut voussoir W7
  volsus vb.ptc turned, vaulted W7
  volvita n.fem turn, vault W7
  volvito, volvitāre vb to turn, leap W7
Late Latin: vallatio, vallationis n.fem earthwork wall W7
Medieval Latin: archivoltum n.neut archivolt W7
  enula n.fem elecampane (an herb) W7
New Latin: elytron n.neut sheath, wing cover W7
  mycelium n.neut mycelium W7
  neurilemma n.neut neurilemma W7
  valva n.fem valve W7
  valvula n.fem.dim small valve W7
  volvox n.masc genus of green flagellates W7
  vulva n.fem vulva W7
Old French: aval n.masc downward W7
  avaler vb to swallow W7
  val n.masc little valley W7
  valee n.fem valley W7
Middle French: avaler vb to swallow, let fall W7
  intervalle n.masc interval W7
  valer vb to let fall W7
  volter vb to turn W7
  voluble adj rotating W7
  volume n.masc book, volume W7
  voûte n.fem vault W7
French: archivolte n archivolt CDC
  hélice n helix, propeller TLL
  hélicoptère n.masc helicopter W7
  val n.masc valley W7
  volte n.fem turn W7
  voussoir n.masc voussoir W7
Old Italian: voltare vb to turn, leap W7
Italian: archivolto n archivolt CDC
  vòlta n.fem turn, direction W7
Lithuanian: vėl adv again LRC
Latvian: vēl adv still, yet LRC
Homeric Greek: ἑλιξ n.fem coil/spiral-shaped thing LS
Greek: εἰλεός n.masc ileus LS
  εἰλέω vb to turn, wind, roll LS
  εʼίλημα n.neut coil, wrapper, covering LS
  ἑλῐκη n.fem coil, spiral, willow LS
  ʽέλμινς n.fem (parasitic) worm LS
  ἑ̑λος n.masc nail; wart, callus LS
Sanskrit: ulva n womb W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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