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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 8. u̯el-   'to steal; to wound, tear, avulse'

Semantic Fields: to Steal; to Harm, Injure, Damage; to Tear


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wæl n.neut carnage; battlefield LRC
  wællgrim adj fierce, cruel LRC
  wælsleaht n.str.masc carnage, slaughter LRC
Middle English: veluet/velvet n velvet W7
English: avulse vb.trans to tear off, forcibly separate AHD/W7
  berdache n transgendered Amerindian AHD
  convulse vb.trans to shake/agitate violently AHD/W7
  divulsion n tearing apart AHD/W7
  evulsion n extraction AHD/W7
  revulsion n withdrawal, strong pulling/drawing away AHD/W7
  svelte adj lithe, slender AHD/W7
  Valkyrie prop.n maiden of Odin: chooses hero to be slain, guides him to Valhalla (Norse mythology) LRC
  velour n fabric resembling velvet AHD/W7
  velvet n fabric with short soft dense pile AHD/W7
  villus n small slender vascular process AHD/W7
  vulnerable adj easily wounded AHD/W7
Old Saxon: wal n the slain, the dead ASD
Old High German: wal n slaughter, casualties ASD
German: Walküre prop.n Valkyrie, lit. chooser of slain W7
Old Norse: Valkyrie prop.n Valkyrie: minor divinity (Norse mythology) W7
  valr n.masc the slain LRC
Icelandic: val-kyrja n.fem Valkyrie, lit. chooser of slain ASD
  valr n the slain ASD
Gothic: wilwa n.masc robber GED
  wilwan vb.str to rob W7/GED
Latin: avello, avellere vb to tear off W7
  convello, convellere vb to convulse, pluck up W7
  convulsus vb.ptc destroyed, overthrown W7
  divello, divellere vb to tear apart; distract, separate W7
  evello, evellere vb to pluck out W7
  evulsio, evulsionis n.fem evulsion, act of unrolling W7
  evulsus vb.ptc unrolled W7
  revello, revellere vb to pluck away W7
  revulsio, revulsionis n.fem revulsion, act of tearing away W7
  revulsus vb.ptc torn away W7
  velleo, vellēre vb to pluck W7
  vello, vellere vb to pluck W7
  vellus n.neut fleece W7
  villosus adj shaggy W7
  villus adj shaggy hair W7
  vulnero, vulnerāre vb to wound W7
  vulnus, vulneris n.neut wound W7
Vulgar Latin: villutus adj shaggy W7
Late Latin: vulnerabilis adj vulnerable W7
New Latin: villus n.masc vascular process W7
Old French: velous n.masc velvet W7
Middle French: velour(s) n.masc velvet W7
  velu adj shaggy W7
French: bardache n berdache, catamite AHD
  svelte adj slim, slender W7
  velours n.masc velvet, velour W7
American French: berdache n berdache AHD
Italian: bardascia n berdache, catamite AHD
  svèllere vb to pluck out, extirpate W7
  svèlto adj quick; slender W7
Greek: οὐλή n.fem scar, wound LS
Old Iranian: *varta- n prisoner AHD
Middle Persian: vartak n prisoner AHD
Persian: bardah n prisoner AHD
Avestan: varəta- n prisoner, one seized AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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